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Table of Contents

Glossary

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Boat Crew Duties and Responsibilities

Section A: The Boat Crew................................................................................ 1-3Section B: Boat Crew Duties............................................................................ 1-5

Trainee ..................................................................................................... 1-6Crew Member........................................................................................... 1-7Boat Engineer ........................................................................................... 1-9Coxswain.................................................................................................. 1-10Surfman.................................................................................................... 1-12

Section C: Watchstanding Responsibilities ........................................................ 1-13Lookout Watch......................................................................................... 1-14Night Lookout Watch ............................................................................... 1-21Helm Watch.............................................................................................. 1-22Towing Watch .......................................................................................... 1-23Anchor Watch........................................................................................... 1-25

Appendix 1-A: The Boat Crew........................................................................ 1-27Appendix 1-B: The Boat Crew........................................................................ 1-31Appendix 1-C: The Boat Crew........................................................................ 1-33

Chapter 2: Patrols

Section A: Safety Patrols .................................................................................. 2-3Benefits of Safety Patrols .......................................................................... 2-4Auxiliary Safety Patrol Boat Duties........................................................... 2-5

Section B: Regatta Patrols and Marine Parades................................................. 2-9Patrolling Regattas.................................................................................... 2-10Patrol Boat Assignments ........................................................................... 2-13Patrolling the Various Regattas ................................................................. 2-16Marine Parades ......................................................................................... 2-21

Section C: Aids to Navigation Patrols............................................................... 2-23Section D: Chart Updating Patrols.................................................................... 2-25Section E: Disaster Patrols ............................................................................... 2-27Section F: Port Security and Maritime Pollution ............................................... 2-29

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Chapter 3: Crew Efficiency Factors

Section A: Physical Fitness Standards ............................................................... 3-3Section B: Crew Fatigue.................................................................................. 3-9Section C: Motion Sickness ............................................................................. 3-13Section D: Lethal Fumes................................................................................... 3-15Section E: Noise.............................................................................................. 3-17Section F: Drugs and Alcohol .......................................................................... 3-19Section G: Cold Related Factors........................................................................ 3-21

Effects of Cold Weather............................................................................ 3-22Hypothermia ............................................................................................. 3-23Frostbite ................................................................................................ 3-25Layering Clothing ..................................................................................... 3-26

Section H: Sun and Heat Related Factors......................................................... 3-29Sun Burns ................................................................................................ 3-30Dehydration .............................................................................................. 3-31Heat Rash (Prickly Heat) .......................................................................... 3-33Heat Cramps............................................................................................. 3-34Heat Exhaustion........................................................................................ 3-35Heat Stroke .............................................................................................. 3-36Susceptibility to Heat Problems................................................................. 3-37

Chapter 4: Team Coordination and Risk Management

Section A: Team Coordination.......................................................................... 4-3Team Relationship .................................................................................... 4-4Team Coordination and Risk Management ................................................ 4-5

Section B: Team Coordination Standards.......................................................... 4-7Leadership Standard ................................................................................. 4-8Mission Analysis Standard ........................................................................ 4-9Adaptability and Flexibility Standard ......................................................... 4-11Situation Awareness Standard................................................................... 4-12Decision Making Standard ........................................................................ 4-13Communication Standard .......................................................................... 4-14Assertiveness Standard.............................................................................. 4-15

Section C: Risk Management Process ............................................................... 4-17The Four Rules of Risk Management ........................................................ 4-18Risk Management Process, Step 1............................................................. 4-20Risk Management Process, Step 2............................................................. 4-21

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Risk Management Process, Step 3............................................................. 4-23Risk Management Process, Steps 4, 5, 6, & 7............................................ 4-25

Section D: Informal Crew Briefing and Debriefing ............................................ 4-27Informal Crew Briefing ............................................................................. 4-28Informal Crew Debriefing ......................................................................... 4-29

Chapter 5: First Aid

Section A: Crew Member’s Roles..................................................................... 5-3Crew Responsibilities................................................................................ 5-4Handling and Transporting of Injured........................................................ 5-6

Section B: Treatment for Shock........................................................................ 5-7Shock Syndromes ..................................................................................... 5-8Anaphylactic Shock .................................................................................. 5-12

Section C: Resuscitation Methods and Emergencies.......................................... 5-15Resuscitation Procedures .......................................................................... 5-16Heart Attack ............................................................................................. 5-18Stroke ................................................................................................ 5-19Scuba Incidents......................................................................................... 5-20

Section D: Treatment for Wounds, Fractures, and Burns .................................. 5-23Bandages ................................................................................................ 5-24Bleeding ................................................................................................ 5-26Fracture (Broken Bones)........................................................................... 5-35Burns ................................................................................................ 5-44

Section E: Environmental Injuries..................................................................... 5-47Emergencies Caused by Heat .................................................................... 5-48Emergencies Caused by Cold .................................................................... 5-51Hypothermia ............................................................................................. 5-53Near-drowning.......................................................................................... 5-58Fish Bites and Stings................................................................................. 5-59

Section F: Miscellaneous Emergencies.............................................................. 5-61Carbon Monoxide Poisoning ..................................................................... 5-62Poisoning by Mouth.................................................................................. 5-63Eye Injuries............................................................................................... 5-64

Chapter 6: Survival Equipment and Pyrotechnics

Section A: Personal Flotation Device (PFD) ..................................................... 6-3Type I PFD............................................................................................... 6-4Type II PFD.............................................................................................. 6-6Type III PFD ............................................................................................ 6-7

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Type IV PFD ............................................................................................ 6-9Type V PFD ............................................................................................. 6-10PFD Storage and Care .............................................................................. 6-11PFD Survival Equipment........................................................................... 6-12Standard Navy Preserver........................................................................... 6-15

Section B: Hypothermia Protective Clothing..................................................... 6-17Requirements............................................................................................ 6-19Antiexposure Coverall............................................................................... 6-21Dry Suit .................................................................................................... 6-23Wet Suit ................................................................................................... 6-25

Section C: Headgear......................................................................................... 6-27Section D: Boat Crew Signal Kit ...................................................................... 6-29

Contents ................................................................................................ 6-30Emergency Signaling Mirror ..................................................................... 6-31Signal Whistle........................................................................................... 6-33Smoke and Illumination Signal, MK-124 MOD 0 ...................................... 6-34Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 MOD 0 .................................................... 6-37Distress Signal Light ................................................................................. 6-39

Section E: Personnel Survival Kit ..................................................................... 6-41Section F: Pyrotechnics ..................................................................................... 6-43Section G: Rescue and Survival Raft.................................................................. 6-47Section H: Emergency Procedures in the Event of Capsizing ............................ 6-53

Chapter 7: Marlinespike Seamanship

Section A: Types and Characteristics of Line .................................................... 7-3Line Characteristics................................................................................... 7-4Natural Fiber Line..................................................................................... 7-8Synthetic Line........................................................................................... 7-10

Section B: Inspection, Handling, Maintenance and Stowage of Line.................. 7-13Inspection ................................................................................................ 7-14Uncoiling and Unreeling............................................................................ 7-17Maintenance ............................................................................................. 7-20Stowing Lines........................................................................................... 7-23

Section C: Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load ...................................... 7-27Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load of a Line................................. 7-28Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load for Shackles and Hooks .......... 7-30Considerations and Limitations ................................................................. 7-31

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Section D: Knots and Splices............................................................................ 7-33Estimating the Length of a Line................................................................. 7-34Breaking Strength ..................................................................................... 7-35Basic Knots .............................................................................................. 7-36Splices ................................................................................................ 7-54Whipping ................................................................................................ 7-59Mousing Hooks and Shackles ................................................................... 7-62

Section E: Line Handling and Deck Fittings ...................................................... 7-65Deck Fittings ............................................................................................ 7-66Line Handling ........................................................................................... 7-67

Appendix A: Estimating the Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load of Lines7-75Appendix B: Estimating the Safe Working Load of Shackles............................. 7-79Appendix C: Estimating the Safe Working Load of Hooks................................ 7-80Appendix D: Instructions for Eye Splice in Double Braid Line .......................... 7-81

Chapter 8: Boat Characteristics

Section A: Boat Nomenclature and Terminology .............................................. 8-3Section B: Boat Construction ........................................................................... 8-7

Hull Types ................................................................................................ 8-8Keel ................................................................................................ 8-14Principle Boat Parts .................................................................................. 8-15Hatches and Doors.................................................................................... 8-22Boat Measurements .................................................................................. 8-24Displacement ............................................................................................ 8-25

Section C: Watertight Integrity ......................................................................... 8-27Closing and Opening Watertight Doors and Hatches ................................. 8-28Entering a Closed Compartment After Damage ......................................... 8-29

Section D: General Boat Equipment ................................................................. 8-31Section E: Troubleshooting Basic Mechanical Problems ................................... 8-35

Troubleshooting Diesel Engines ................................................................ 8-36Troubleshooting Gasoline Inboard Engine (Except Outboards) ................. 8-41Casualties Common to Both Diesel and Gasoline Engines ......................... 8-44Troubleshooting the Outboard .................................................................. 8-50Steering Casualty ...................................................................................... 8-52Basic Engine Maintenance for Auxiliary Facilities...................................... 8-53

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Chapter 9: Stability

Section A: Safety and Risk Management Control.............................................. 9-3Section B: Understanding Stability.................................................................... 9-7

Center of Gravity ...................................................................................... 9-8Buoyancy ................................................................................................ 9-9Equilibrium............................................................................................... 9-10Types of Stability ...................................................................................... 9-12Moment and Forces .................................................................................. 9-13

Section C: Losing Stability ............................................................................... 9-17Stability After Damage.............................................................................. 9-18Free Surface Effect ................................................................................... 9-19Free Communication with the Sea ............................................................. 9-21Effects of Icing ......................................................................................... 9-22Effects of Downflooding ........................................................................... 9-23Effects of Water on Deck.......................................................................... 9-24

Chapter 10: Boat Handling

Section A: Forces ............................................................................................. 10-3Environmental Forces ............................................................................... 10-4Forces Acting on a Vessel ......................................................................... 10-9Shaft, Propeller, and Rudder ..................................................................... 10-12Outboard Motors and Stern Drives ........................................................... 10-17Waterjets ................................................................................................ 10-21

Section B: Basic Maneuvering .......................................................................... 10-23Learning the Controls ............................................................................... 10-24Moving Forward in a Straight Line............................................................ 10-26Turning the Boat with the Helm ................................................................ 10-33Stopping the Boat ..................................................................................... 10-38Backing the Vessel.................................................................................... 10-40Using Asymmetric or Opposed Propulsion ................................................ 10-43Changing Vessel Heading Using Asymmetric or Opposed Propulsion........ 10-44Performing Single-Screw Compound Maneuvering ................................... 10-48

Section C: Maneuvering Near Other Objects..................................................... 10-51Keeping Station ........................................................................................ 10-52Maneuvering............................................................................................. 10-56

Section D: Maneuvering to or from a Dock ...................................................... 10-57General Considerations ............................................................................. 10-58Basic Maneuvers....................................................................................... 10-59

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Rules of Thumb ........................................................................................ 10-63Section E: Maneuvering Alongside Another Vessel........................................... 10-67

Determining Approach.............................................................................. 10-68Going Alongside ....................................................................................... 10-70

Section F: Maneuvering in Rough Weather....................................................... 10-73Using Caution........................................................................................... 10-74Negotiating Head Seas.............................................................................. 10-77Running Before a Sea ............................................................................... 10-81Traversing Beam Seas............................................................................... 10-84Transiting Harbor Entrances, Inlets, or River Entrances ............................ 10-85Coping with High Winds........................................................................... 10-88Heaving-To............................................................................................... 10-91

Section G: Maneuvering in Rivers..................................................................... 10-93Operating in a Narrow Channel ................................................................. 10-94Turning in a Bend ..................................................................................... 10-97

Section H: Anchoring ....................................................................................... 10-101General Information.................................................................................. 10-102Ground Tackle.......................................................................................... 10-105Fittings ................................................................................................ 10-106Anchoring Techniques .............................................................................. 10-108Anchor Stowage ....................................................................................... 10-116

Chapter 11: Communications

Section A: Radio Signal Characteristics ............................................................ 11-3Modulation and Frequency........................................................................ 11-4Radio Systems .......................................................................................... 11-5Radio Frequencies..................................................................................... 11-7

Section B: Prowords and Common Abbreviations............................................. 11-11Section C: Verbal Communications................................................................... 11-13

The Phonetic Alphabet.............................................................................. 11-14Numbers and Decimal Points..................................................................... 11-16

Section D: Radio Operating Procedures............................................................ 11-17Section E: Communicating Between Coast Guard Facilities .............................. 11-19

Coast Guard Voice Call Signals and Ops Normal Reports ......................... 11-20Bridge-to-Bridge Communications Required............................................. 11-22

Section F: Emergency Voice Communications and Distress Signals .................. 11-23Standard Voice Radio Urgency Calls......................................................... 11-24Emergency Position Indicating Radiobeacon (EPIRB) and

Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) ............................................... 11-27Global Marine Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)................................ 11-29

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Distress Signals......................................................................................... 11-30Section G: Radio Checks .................................................................................. 11-33

Chapter 12: Weather and Oceanography

Section A: Weather .......................................................................................... 12-3Wind ................................................................................................ 12-4Thunderstorms and Lightning.................................................................... 12-7Fog ................................................................................................ 12-11Ice ................................................................................................ 12-13Forecasting ............................................................................................... 12-14

Section B: Oceanography ................................................................................. 12-19Waves ................................................................................................ 12-20Current ................................................................................................ 12-27

Chapter 13: Aids to Navigation

Section A: U.S. Aids to Navigation System ...................................................... 13-3Lateral and Cardinal Significance .............................................................. 13-4General Characteristics of Short Range ATON.......................................... 13-7Summary of Lateral Significance of Buoys and Beacons............................ 13-14Buoys ................................................................................................ 13-17Beacons ................................................................................................ 13-18

Section B: U.S. ATON System Variation.......................................................... 13-25Intracoastal Waterways and Western Rivers .............................................. 13-26Uniform State Waterway Marking System................................................. 13-28

Section C: Short Range Electronic Aids............................................................ 13-31Section D: Radionavigation Systems................................................................. 13-33

Loran-C ................................................................................................ 13-34Global Positioning System (GPS).............................................................. 13-35Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)......................................... 13-36Radionavigation System Summary ............................................................ 13-37

Section E: The Light List.................................................................................. 13-39Appendix 13-A U.S. ATON System .................................................................. 13-43Appendix 13-B Visual Buoyage Guide............................................................... 13-45Appendix 13-C Fictitious Nautical Chart............................................................ 13-47Appendix 13-D Western River System and USWMS ......................................... 13-49

Chapter 14: Navigation

Section A: The Earth and its Coordinates ......................................................... 14-3Lines and Circles....................................................................................... 14-4

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Parallels ................................................................................................ 14-6Meridians ................................................................................................ 14-9Chart Projections ...................................................................................... 14-12

Section B: Nautical Charts................................................................................ 14-15The Compass Rose ................................................................................... 14-16Soundings ................................................................................................ 14-18Basic Chart Information ............................................................................ 14-20Scale of the Nautical Chart........................................................................ 14-24Chart Symbols and Abbreviations.............................................................. 14-26Buoy Symbols........................................................................................... 14-28Other Chart Symbols................................................................................. 14-29Accuracy of Charts ................................................................................... 14-35

Section C: Magnetic Compass .......................................................................... 14-37Components of a Magnetic Compass......................................................... 14-38Direction ................................................................................................ 14-41Compass Error.......................................................................................... 14-43Variation ................................................................................................ 14-44Deviation ................................................................................................ 14-45Compass Adjustment ................................................................................ 14-55Applying Compass Error........................................................................... 14-56

Section D: Piloting ........................................................................................... 14-61Basic Piloting Equipment .......................................................................... 14-62Distance, Speed, and Time........................................................................ 14-72Fuel Consumption..................................................................................... 14-76Terms Used In Piloting ............................................................................. 14-77Laying the Course..................................................................................... 14-80Dead Reckoning (DR)............................................................................... 14-82Basic Elements of Piloting......................................................................... 14-85Plotting Bearings ...................................................................................... 14-94Line of Position (LOP).............................................................................. 14-97Set and Drift (Current Sailing) .................................................................. 14-109Radar ................................................................................................ 14-115Loran ................................................................................................ 14-126Global Positioning System (GPS).............................................................. 14-130Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)......................................... 14-131

Section E: River Sailing.................................................................................... 14-133Major Piloting Differences ........................................................................ 14-134Conditions and Effects .............................................................................. 14-136Locks and Dams ....................................................................................... 14-137Safety Considerations Around Navigation Dams ....................................... 14-142

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Flood Warnings ........................................................................................ 14-143Common River Sailing Terms ................................................................... 14-144

Chapter 15: Search and Rescue

Section A: Organization and Responsibility....................................................... 15-3Coast Guard Responsibility ....................................................................... 15-4Search and Rescue Coordination............................................................... 15-6

Section B: SAR Emergency Phases................................................................... 15-9Section C: Legal Aspects and U.S. Coast Guard Policy..................................... 15-11

SAR Agreements ...................................................................................... 15-12Distress Beacon Incidents ......................................................................... 15-13Flare Incidents .......................................................................................... 15-14Hoaxes and False Alarms .......................................................................... 15-15Maritime SAR Assistance Policy ............................................................... 15-16General Salvage Policy (Other Than Towing)............................................ 15-19General Issues........................................................................................... 15-21

Section D: SAR Incident Information ............................................................... 15-23Initial SAR Information............................................................................. 15-24Additional SAR Information ..................................................................... 15-28

Section E: Search Planning ............................................................................... 15-31Datum ................................................................................................ 15-22Search Area Description ........................................................................... 15-34Search Patterns ......................................................................................... 15-39Initial Response......................................................................................... 15-49Search Area Coverage .............................................................................. 15-51

Section F: Search Preparations ......................................................................... 15-53Section G: Conducting a Search ....................................................................... 15-55

Chapter 16: Person in the Water Recovery

Section A: Recovery Methods .......................................................................... 16-3General Man Overboard Procedures.......................................................... 16-4The Approach........................................................................................... 16-8Sailboat Approaches ................................................................................. 16-13Approaching in Low Visibility................................................................... 16-16Approaching Under Surf Conditions ......................................................... 16-25Recovery ................................................................................................ 16-26

Section B: Water Survival Skills ....................................................................... 16-33Cold Water Survivability........................................................................... 16-34Survival Techniques.................................................................................. 16-36

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Chapter 17: Towing

Section A: Towing Safety................................................................................. 17-3Assessment and Awareness ....................................................................... 17-4Risk Management Planning ....................................................................... 17-5

Section B: Forces in Towing............................................................................. 17-7Static Forces ............................................................................................. 17-8Dynamic Forces ........................................................................................ 17-10Combination of Forces and Shock-load ..................................................... 17-14

Section C: Towing Equipment .......................................................................... 17-17Towlines and Accessories ......................................................................... 17-18Messengers ............................................................................................... 17-25Chafing Gear............................................................................................. 17-27Deck Fittings and Other Fittings................................................................ 17-28Drogues ................................................................................................ 17-30Other Equipment....................................................................................... 17-35

Section D: Standard Towing Procedures........................................................... 17-37Pre-Towing Procedures ............................................................................ 17-38Towing Astern.......................................................................................... 17-43Connecting Tow Rig to Fittings ................................................................ 17-48Connecting Tow Rig to a Trailer Eye ........................................................ 17-51Transition to Stern Tow............................................................................ 17-52Underway with Stern Tow ........................................................................ 17-54Compensating for Current......................................................................... 17-59Shortening the Tow .................................................................................. 17-67Towing Alongside..................................................................................... 17-70Sinking Tows............................................................................................ 17-75

Appendix A: Towing Precautions ..................................................................... 17-77

Chapter 18: Firefighting, Rescue and Assistance

Section A: Safety and Damage Control............................................................. 18-3Coast Guard Firefighting Activities Policy................................................. 18-4Safety Assessment and Management Guidelines ........................................ 18-5

Section B: Boat Fire Prevention and Susceptible Areas..................................... 18-7Preventive Actions .................................................................................... 18-8Susceptible Areas...................................................................................... 18-9

Section C: Fire Theory, Classifications, and Fuel Souces................................... 18-13Fire Theory............................................................................................... 18-14Classifications of Fire and Fuel Sources..................................................... 18-16

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Section D: Extinguishing Agents....................................................................... 18-17Section E: Applying Extinguishing Agents ........................................................ 18-19

Applying Water......................................................................................... 18-20Applying Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) ........................................ 18-23Applying Chemical Agents ........................................................................ 18-24Applying Halon......................................................................................... 18-27Applying FE-241 ...................................................................................... 18-28

Section F: Firefighting Equipment..................................................................... 18-29Fire Hose ................................................................................................ 18-30Spanner Wrench........................................................................................ 18-32Wye-Gate ................................................................................................ 18-33Tri-Gate ................................................................................................ 18-34Vari-Nozzle .............................................................................................. 18-36Fire Monitor ............................................................................................. 18-37In-Line Proportioner ................................................................................. 18-39Mechanical Foam Nozzle .......................................................................... 18-41Drop Pump and AFFF............................................................................... 18-43Fire Axe ................................................................................................ 18-44Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers......................................................... 18-45Dry Chemical Extinguishers (PKP)............................................................ 18-47

Section G: Firefighting Procedures ................................................................... 18-49Coast Guard’s Firefighting Duty ............................................................... 18-50Safety Precautions .................................................................................... 18-51Operations ................................................................................................ 18-53Action ................................................................................................ 18-54

Section H: Extinguishing Fires.......................................................................... 18-57Safety Rules.............................................................................................. 18-58Fire Combat.............................................................................................. 18-59Firefighting Procedures on Coast Guard Boats .......................................... 18-60Firefighting Procedures on Auxiliary Boats ............................................... 18-63Fires Aboard Other Boats ......................................................................... 18-65Fire Under Control.................................................................................... 18-66Fire Extinguished ...................................................................................... 18-67Abandoning a Boat ................................................................................... 18-68

Section I: Dewatering....................................................................................... 18-69Action Before Dewatering ........................................................................ 18-70Dewatering with an Eductor...................................................................... 18-71Dewatering Using a Drop Pump................................................................ 18-73

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Section J: Righting Powerboats and Sailboats .................................................. 18-81Righting Powerboats................................................................................. 18-82Righting Small Sailboats ........................................................................... 18-89Righting Large Sailboats ........................................................................... 18-90

Section K: Flood Control.................................................................................. 18-91Plugging Holes.......................................................................................... 18-92Patching Holes.......................................................................................... 18-94Patching Cracks ........................................................................................ 18-97

Chapter 19: Air Operations

Section A: Helicopters and Equipment.............................................................. 19-3HH-65A Dolphin ...................................................................................... 19-4HH-60J Jayhawk....................................................................................... 19-6Other Helicopter Equipment ..................................................................... 19-11

Section B: Helicopter Rescue Operations.......................................................... 19-13Rescue Swimmer ...................................................................................... 19-14Helicopter Hoisting Operations ................................................................. 19-15Helicopter Boat Positioning ...................................................................... 19-18Delivery of the Rescue Device................................................................... 19-21Hoisting ................................................................................................ 19-24

Section C: Helicopter Ditching ......................................................................... 19-27Section D: Helicopter Salvage and Towing....................................................... 19-31Section E: Fixed-wing aircraft .......................................................................... 19-35Appendix 19-A: Sample Briefing to Pass to Vessel Prior to Helicopter

Hoisting................................................................................... 19-39

Addendum A: Heavy Weather Addendum

Section A: Heavy Weather Wave and Surf Characteristics ................................ A-3Waves in Heavy Weather .......................................................................... A-4Observing and Measuring Waves .............................................................. A-5Surf Zone ................................................................................................ A-7

Section B: Heavy Weather Boat Handling......................................................... A-9Motions ................................................................................................ A-10Control of Effects ..................................................................................... A-12Experience................................................................................................ A-14Boat Handling........................................................................................... A-15

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Section C: Heavy Weather Piloting................................................................... A-17Preparation ............................................................................................... A-18Equipment Condition ................................................................................ A-21Specific Techniques .................................................................................. A-23

Heavy Weather Person in the Water Recovery ................................................... A-25Man Overboard......................................................................................... A-26Recovery of a PIW.................................................................................... A-29Use of a Surface Swimmer ........................................................................ A-30Multiple PIWs........................................................................................... A-31

Surf Operations ................................................................................................ A-33Risk Management and Safety Conditions................................................... A-34Forces Affecting Boat Handling in Surf..................................................... A-36Basic Surf Operations ............................................................................... A-40

Index

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Glossary

Glossary-1

Glossary

abaft Behind, toward the stern of a vessel.

abeam To one side of a vessel, at a right angle to the fore-and-aft center line.

advection fog A type of fog that occurs when warm air moves over colder land or watersurfaces; the greater the difference between the air temperature and theunderlying surface temperature, the denser the fog, which is hardlyaffected by sunlight.

aft Near or toward the stern.

aground With the keel or bottom of a vessel fast on the sea floor.

Aids to Navigation(ATON)

Lighthouses, lights, buoys, sound signals, racon, radiobeacons, electronicaids, and other markers on land or sea established to help navigatorsdetermine position or safe course, dangers, or obstructions to navigation.

allision The running of one vessel into or against another, as distinguished from acollision, i.e., the running of two vessel against each other. But thisdistinciton is not very carefully observed. Also used to refer to a vesselstriking a fixed structure (i.e. bridge, pier, moored vessel, etc.) per marineinspection.

amidships In or towards center portion of the vessel, sometimes referred to as“midships.”

anchorage area A customary, suitable, and generally designated area in which vessels mayanchor.

astern The direction toward or beyond the back of a vessel.

athwartships Crosswise of a ship; bisecting the fore-and-aft line above the keel.

attitude A vessel’s position relative to the wind, sea, hazard, or other vessel.

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Glossary

Glossary-2

back and fill A technique where one relies on the tendency of a vessel to back to port,then uses the rudder to direct thrust when powering ahead. Also knownas casting.

backing plate A reinforcement plate below a deck or behind a bulkhead used to back adeck fitting. It is usually made of wood or steel and distributes stress on afitting over a larger area and prevents bolts from pulling through the deck.

backing spring(line)

Line used when towing a vessel along side which may be secured near thetowing vessel’s stern and the towed vessel’s bow.

ballast Weight placed in a vessel to maintain its stability.

beacon Any fixed aid to navigation placed ashore or on marine sites. If lighted,they are referred to as minor lights.

beam The widest point of a vessel on a line perpendicular to the keel, the fore-an-aft centerline.

Beaufort WindScale

A scale whose numbers define a particular state of wind and wave,allowing mariners to estimate the wind speed based on the sea state.

bell buoy A floating aid to navigation with a short tower in which there are severalclappers that strike the bell as it rocks with the motion of the sea.

below The space or spaces that are below a vessel’s main deck.

bilge The lowest point of a vessel’s inner hull, which is underwater.

bilge alarm system Alarm for warning of excessive water or liquid in the bilge.

bilge drain A drain used for removing water or liquid from the bilge.

bilge pump Pump used to clear water or liquid from the bilge.

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Glossary

Glossary-3

bitt A strong post of wood or metal, on deck in the bow or stern, to whichanchor, mooring, or towing lines may be fastened.

boat hook A hook on a pole with a pushing surface at the end used to retrieve orpick up objects, or for pushing objects away.

bollard A single strong vertical fitting, usually iron, on a deck, pier, or wharf, towhich mooring lines or a hawser may be fastened.

bolo line A nylon line with a padded or wrapped weight thrown from vessel tovessel or between vessels and shore which is used for passing a larger line(see heaving line).

boom Spar used to spread a fore-and-aft sail, especially its foot; without a sailand with a suitable lift attached, it can be used as a lifting device orderrick.

boundary layer A layer of water carried along the hull of a vessel varying in thicknessfrom the bow to stern.

bow Forward end of vessel.

bow line A line secured from the bow of a vessel. In an alongside towingoperation, the bow line is secured on both the towing and the towedvessel at or near the bow and may act as breast line of each.

bowline A classic knot that forms an eye that will not slip come loose or jam, andis not difficult to untie after it has been under strain.

breakaway Command given by coxswain, conning officer, or pilot when a helicopterhoisting operation, towing, or alongside evolution has to be terminateddue to unsafe conditions.

breaker A wave cresting with the top breaking down over its face.

breaker line The outer limit of the surf.

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Glossary

Glossary-4

breaking strength(BS)

Refers to the force needed to break or part a line. BS is measured inpounds, more specifically, it is the number of pounds of stress a line canhold before it parts.

breast line Mooring or dock line extended laterally from a vessel to a pier or float asdistinguished from a spring line.

bridge markings Lights or signs which provide mariners information for safely passing abridge over a waterway.

bridle A device attached to a vessel or aircraft (in the water) in order for anothervessel to tow it. Its use can reduce the effects of yawing, stress on towedvessel fittings, and generally gives the towing vessel greater control overthe tow.

broach To be thrown broadside to surf or heavy sea.

broadcast noticeto mariners

A radio broadcast that provides important marine information.

broadside to thesea

Refers to a vessel being positioned so that the sea is hitting either thestarboard or port side of the vessel.

bulkhead Walls or partitions within a vessel with structural functions such asproviding strength or watertightness. Light partitions are sometimescalled partition bulkheads.

bullnose A round opening at the forwardmost part of the bow through which atowline, mooring line or anchor line passes.

buoy A floating aid to navigation anchored to the bottom that conveysinformation to navigators by their shape or color, by their visible oraudible signals, or both.

buoy moorings Chain or synthetic rope used to attach buoys to sinkers.

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Glossary

Glossary-5

buoy station Established (charted) location of a buoy.

buoyage A system of buoys with assigned shapes, colors, or numbers.

buoyancy The tendency or capacity of a vessel to remain afloat.

can buoy(cylindrical)

A cylindrical buoy, generally green, marking the left side of a channel orsafe passage as seen entering from seaward, or from the north or eastproceeding south or west.

capsize To turn a vessel bottom side up.

cardinal marks Indicate the location of navigable waters by reference to the cardinaldirections (N,E,S,W) on a compass.

casting See Back and Fill.

catenary The sag in a length of chain, cable, or line because of its own weight andwhich provides a spring or elastic effect in towing, anchoring, or securingto a buoy.

cavitation The formation of a partial vacuum around the propeller blades of a vessel.

center of gravity Point in a ship where the sum of all moments of weight is zero. With theship at rest the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy are always ina direct vertical line. For surface ships center of buoyancy is usually belowcenter of gravity, and the ship is prevented from capsizing by theadditional displacement on the low side during a roll. Thus the point atwhich the deck edge enters the water is critical because from here onwardincreased roll will not produce corresponding increased righting force.

center pointmethod, circulararea

In SAR, one of several methods to define a search area.

center pointmethod,rectangular area

In SAR, one of several methods to define a search area.

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Glossary

Glossary-6

center pointmethod,rectangular area,bearing anddistance

In SAR, one of several methods to define a search area.

centerline An imaginary line down the middle of a vessel from bow to stern.

chafe To wear away by friction.

chaffing gear Material used to prevent chafing or wearing of a line or other surface.

characteristic The audible, visual, or electronic signal displayed by an aid to navigationto assist in the identification of an aid to navigation. Characteristic refersto lights, sound signals, racons, radiobeacons, and daybeacons.

chart A printed or electronic geographic representation generally showingdepths of water, aids to navigation, dangers, and adjacent land featuresuseful to mariners (See Nautical Chart).

chine The intersection of the bottom and the sides of a flat bottom or “V” hullboat.

chock Metal fitting through which hawsers and lines are passed. May be open orclosed. Blocks used to prevent aircraft or vehicles from rolling. Also,blocks used to support a boat under repair.

chop Short steep waves usually generated by local winds and/or tidal changes.Change of operational control. The date and time at which theresponsibility for operational control of a ship or convoy passes from oneoperational control authority to another.

cleat An anvil-shaped deck fitting for securing or belaying lines. Wedge cleatsare used in yachting to hold sheets ready for instant release.

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Glossary

Glossary-7

closeout Occurs when a wave breaks from the ends toward the middle, or twowaves break towards each other; should be avoided because they cancreate more energy than a single break.

closing The act of one vessel reducing the distance between itself and anothervessel, structure, or object.

clove hitch A hitch often used for fastening a line to a spar, ring, stanchion, or otherlarger lines or cables.

Coast Guard-approved

Label denoting compliance with Coast Guard specifications andregulations relating to performance, construction, and materials.

coastal At or near a coast.

coil down To lay out a line in a circle with coils loosely on top on one anther. (seeFake Down, Flemish Down)

comber A wave at the point of breaking.

combination buoy Buoy that combines the characteristics of both sound and light.

combustion Rapid oxidation of combustible material accompanied by a release ofenergy in the form of heat and light.

compartment A room or space on board ship. Usually lettered and numbered accordingto location and use.

compass Instrument for determining direction: magnetic, depending on the earth’smagnetic field for its force; gyroscopic, depending on the tendency of afree-spinning body to seek to align its axis with that of the earth.

conventionaldirection ofbuoyage

The general direction taken by the mariner when approaching a harbor,river, estuary, or other waterway from seaward, or proceeding upstreamor in the direction of the main stream of flood tide, or in the directionindicated in appropriate nautical documents (normally, following aclockwise direction around land masses).

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Glossary

Glossary-8

corner method In SAR, one of several methods to define a search area. Latitude andlongitude or geographic features of corners of search area are identified.

Cospas-Sarsatsystem

A satellite system designed to detect distress beacons transmitting on thefrequencies 121.5 MHz and 406 MHz.

course (C) The horizontal direction in which a vessel is steered or intended to besteered, expressed as angular distance from north, usually from 000degrees at north, clockwise through 360 degrees.

coverage factor(C)

In SAR, a measure of search effectiveness; ration of sweep width to trackspacing: C = W/S.

coxswain Person in charge of a boat, pronounced “COX-un.”

crab To move sidewise through the water.

craft Any air or sea-surface vehicle, or submersible of any kind or size.

crash stop Immediately going from full speed ahead to full reverse throttle; this is anemergency maneuver. It is extremely harsh on the drive train and maycause engine stall.

crest The top of a wave, breaker, or swell.

crucifix Type of deck or boat fitting that resembles a cross, used to secure a lineto. Ex.: sampson post

current (ocean) Continuous movement of the sea, sometimes caused by prevailing winds,as well as large constant forces, such as the rotation of the earth, or theapparent rotation of the sun and moon. Example is the Gulf Stream.

damage control Measures necessary to preserve and reestablish shipboard watertightintegrity, stability, and maneuverability; to control list and trim; to makerapid repairs of material. Inspection of damage caused by fire, flooding,and/or collision and the subsequent control and corrective measures.

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Glossary

Glossary-9

datum In SAR, refers to the probable location of a distressed vessel, downedaircraft or PIW, which is corrected for drift at any moment in time.Depending on the information received this may be represented as a point,a line or an area.

day mark The daytime identifier of an aid to navigation (see Daybeacon, Dayboard).

daybeacon An unlighted fixed structure which is equipped with a highly visibledayboard for daytime identification.

dayboard The daytime identifier of an aid to navigation presenting one of severalstandard shapes (square, triangle, rectangle) and colors (red, green, white,orange, yellow or black).

de-watering The act of removing water from inside compartments of a vessel. Waterlocated high in the vessel, or sufficiently off-center should be removedfirst to restore the vessel’s stability. Used to prevent sinking, capsizing orlisting.

Dead in the Water(DIW)

A vessel that has no means to maneuver, normally due to engine casualty.A vessel that is adrift or no means of propulsion.

Dead Reckoning(DR)

Determination of estimated position of a craft by adding to the last fix thecraft’s course and speed for a given time.

deadman’s stick See Static Discharge Wand.

deck The horizontal plating or planking on a ship or boat.

deck fitting Term for permanently installed fittings on the deck of a vessel which youcan attach machinery or equipment.

deck scuttle Small, quick-closing access hole located on the deck of a vessel.

deep “V” hull A hull design generally used for faster seagoing types of boats.

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Glossary

Glossary-10

desmoking The natural or forced ventilation of a vessel’s compartment to removesmoke.

destroyer turn Used during person overboard situations. The boat is turned in thedirection the individual fell overboard, to get the stern of the boat (and thescrews) away from the person overboard.

Digital SelectiveCalling (DSC)

A technique using digital codes which enables a radio station to establishcontact with, and transfer information to, another station or group ofstations.

Direction ofcurrent

Direction toward which a current is flowing. See Set.

direction of waves,swells, or seas

Direction to which the waves, swells, or seas are moving.

direction of wind Direction from which the wind is blowing.

displacement hull A hull that achieves its buoyancy or flotation capability by displacing avolume of water equal in weight to the hull and it’s load.

distress As used in the Coast Guard, when a craft or person is threatened by graveor imminent danger requiring immediate assistance.

ditching The forced landing of an aircraft on water.

dolphin A structure consisting of a number of piles driven into the seabed or riverbed in a circular pattern and drawn together with wire rope. May be usedas part of a dock structure or a minor aid to navigation. Commonly usedwhen a single pile would not provide the desired strength.

downwash The resulting force of the movement of air in a downward motion from ahelicopter in flight or hovering.

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Glossary

Glossary-11

draft Measured from the waterline, it is the point on a vessel’s underwater bodythat reaches the greatest depth.

drag Forces opposing direction of motion due to friction, profile and othercomponents. The amount that a ship is down by the stern.

drift The rate/speed at which a vessel moves due to the effects of wind, wave,current, or the accumulative effects of each. Usually expressed in knots.

drogue Device used to slow rate of movement. Commonly rigged off the stern ofa boat while under tow to reduce the effects of following seas. Mayprevent yawing and/or broaching. (see Sea Anchor)

drop pump A portable, gasoline-powered pump that is transported in a water tightcontainer. Used for de-watering a vessel.

dry suit A coverall type garment made of waterproof material having a rubber orneoprene seal around the neck and wrist cuffs. Allows the wearer to workin the water or in a marine environment without getting wet.

dynamic forces Forces associated with the changing environment e.g., the wind, current,weather.

ebb A tidal effect caused by the loss of water in a river, bay, or estuaryresulting in discharge currents immediately followed by a low tidalcondition.

ebb current The horizontal motion away from the land caused by a falling tide.

ebb direction The approximate true direction toward which the ebbing current flows;generally close to the reciprocal of the flood direction.

eddy A circular current.

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Glossary

Glossary-12

eductor Siphon device that contains no moving parts. It moves water from oneplace to another by forcing the pumped liquid into a rapidly flowingstream. This is know as the venturi effect. De-watering equipment used toremove fire-fighting and flooding water from a compartment in a vessel.

EmergencyLocatorTransmitter (ELT)

Aeronautical radio distress beacon for alerting and transmitting homingsignals.

EmergencyPosition-Indicating RadioBeacon (EPIRB)

A device, usually carried aboard a maritime craft, that transmits a signalthat alerts search and rescue authorities and enables rescue units to locatethe scene of the distress.

emergency signalmirror

Used to attract attention of passing aircraft or boats by reflecting light atthem. Such reflected light may be seen up to five miles or more from thepoint of origin.

environmentalforces

Forces that affect the horizontal motion of a vessel; they include wind,seas and current.

eye The permanently fixed loop at the end of a line.

eye splice The splice needed to make a permanently fixed loop at the end of a line.

fairlead A point, usually a specialized fitting, such as a block, chock, or roller usedto change the direction and increase effectiveness of a line or cable. Itwill, in most cases, reduce the effects of chaffing.

fairways (mid-channel)

A channel that is marked by safemarks that indicate that the water is safeto travel around either side of the red and white vertically striped buoy.

fake down To lay out a line in long flat bights, that will pay out freely without bightsor kinks. A coiled or flemished line cannot do this unless the coil of theline is able to turn, as on a reel. Otherwise a twist results in the line whichwill produce a kink or jam (see Coil Down and Flemish Down).

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Glossary

Glossary-13

fatigue Physical or mental weariness due to exertion. Exhausting effort oractivity. Weakness in material, such as metal or wood, resulting fromprolonged stress.

fender A device of canvas, wood, line, cork, rubber, wicker, or plastic slung overthe side of a boat/ship in position to absorb the shock of contact betweenvessels or between a vessel and pier.

fender board A board that is hung outboard of your vessel’s fenders. Used to protectthe side of a vessel.

ferry To transport a boat, people or goods across a body of water.

fetch The unobstructed distance over which the wind blows across the surfaceof the water.

fitting Generic term for any part or piece of machinery or installed equipment.

fix A geographical position determined by visual reference to the surface,referencing to one or more radio navigation aids, celestial plotting, orother navigation device.

fixed light A light showing continuously and steadily, as opposed to a rhythmic light.

flash A relatively brief appearance of light, in comparison with the longestinterval of darkness in the same character.

flashing light A light in which the total duration of light in each period is clearly shorterthan the total duration of darkness and in which the flashes of light are allof equal duration. (Commonly used for a single-flashing light whichexhibits only single flashes which are repeated at regular intervals.)

flemish (down) To coil down a line on deck in a flat, circular, tight arrangement. Usefulfor appearance only, since unless the twists in the line are removed it willkink when taken up or used. (see Fake Down and Coil Down).

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Glossary

Glossary-14

floating aid tonavigation

A buoy.

flood A tidal effect caused by the rise in water level in a river, bay, or estuaryimmediately followed by a high tidal condition.

flood current The horizontal motion of water toward the land caused by a rising tide.

flood direction The approximate true direction toward which the flooding current flows;generally close to the reciprocal of the ebb direction.

foam crest Top of the foaming water that speeds toward the beach after the wave hasbroken; also known as white water.

fore Something situated at or near the front. The front part, at, toward, or nearthe front; as in the forward part of a vessel.

forward Towards the bow of a vessel.

foul To entangle, confuse, or obstruct. Jammed or entangled; not clear forrunning. Covered with barnacles, as foul bottom.

frames Any of the members of the skeletal structure of a vessel to which theexterior planking or plating is secured.

freecommunicationwith the sea

Movement of water in and out of a vessel through an opening in the hull.

freeboard Distance from the weather deck to the waterline on a vessel.

furl To make up in a bundle, as in furl the sail.

Global PositioningSystem (GPS)

A satellite-based radio navigation system that provides precise,continuous, worldwide, all-weather three-dimensional navigation for land,sea and air applications.

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Glossary

Glossary-15

gong buoy A wave actuated sound signal on buoys which uses a group of saucer-shaped bells to produce different tones. Found inside harbors and oninland waterways. Sound range about one mile.

grabline A line hung along a vessels side near the waterline used for the recoveryof persons in the water or to assist in the boarding of the vessel.

grommet A round attaching point, of metal or plastic, normally found on fenders,tarps, etc.

ground fog See Radiation Fog.

group-flashinglight

A flashing light in which a group of flashes, specified in number, isregularly repeated.

group-occultinglight

An occulting light in which a group of eclipses, specified in number, isregularly repeated.

gunwale Upper edge of a boat’s side. Pronounced “gun-ul.”

half hitch A hitch used for securing a line to a post; usually seen as two half hitches.

harbor Anchorage and protection for ships. A shelter or refuge.

hatch The covering, often watertight, placed over an opening on the horizontalsurface of a boat/ship.

hawsepipe A through deck fitting normally found above a line locker/hold whichallows for the removal of line without accessing the compartment frombelow deck. Normally only slightly larger in diameter than the line itself.

head up (headsup)

A warning given before throwing a messenger, heaving, or towline toalert people to be ready for receipt of line and to avoid being hit by theobject being thrown. Potential danger warning.

heading The direction in which a ship or aircraft is pointed.

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Glossary

Glossary-16

heaving line Light, weighted line thrown across to a ship or pier when coming alongside to act as a messenger for a mooring line. The weight is called amonkey fist.

heavy weather Heavy weather is determined to exist when seas exceed 8 feet and/orwinds are greater than 30 knots.

heel Temporary leaning of a vessel to port or starboard caused by the windand sea or by a high speed turn.

helm The apparatus by which a vessel is steered; usually a steering wheel ortiller.

high seas That body of water extending seaward of a country’s territorial sea to theterritorial sea of another country.

hoist To lift. Display of signal flags at yardarm. The vertical portion of a flagalongside its staff.

hoisting cable The cable used to perform a boat/helo hoisting evolution.

holed Refers to a hole or opening in the hull of a damaged vessel.

hull The body or shell of a ship or seaplane.

hull integrity Refers to the hull’s soundness.

hypothermia A lowering of the core body temperature due to exposure of cold (wateror air) resulting in a subnormal body temperature that can be dangerousor fatal. The word literally means “under heated.”

impeller A propulsion device that draws water in and forces it out through anozzle.

in step (position) Refers to the towing boat keeping the proper position with the towedboat. For example; the proper distance in relation to sea/swell patterns sothat both boats ride over the seas in the same relative position wave crestto wave crest.

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Glossary

Glossary-17

inboard Toward the center of a ship or a group of ships, as opposed to outboard.

Inboard/Outdrive(I/O)

An inboard engine attached through the transom to the outdrive.

IncidentCommand System(ICS)

Management system for responding to major emergency events involvingmultiple jurisdictions and agencies. Coast Guard facilities may conductsimultaneous operations along with other types of responders under ICSmanagement.

information marks Aids to navigation that inform the mariner of dangers, restriction, or otherinformation. Also referred to as regulatory marks.

inlet A recess, as a bay or cove, along a coastline. A stream or bay leadinginland, as from the ocean. A narrow passage of water, as between twoislands.

isolated dangermark

A mark erected on, or moored above or very near, an isolated dangerwhich has navigable water all around it.

junction The point where a channel divides when proceeding seaward. The placewhere a branch of a river departs from the main stream.

junction aid(obstruction aid)

Horizontally striped aids that Indicate the preferred channel with the topcolor on the aid. They may also mark an obstruction.

kapok A silky fiber obtained from the fruit of the silk-cotton tree and used forbuoyancy, insulation and as padding in seat cushions and life preservers.

keel Central, longitudinal beam or timber of a ship from which the frames andhull plating rise.

kicker hook See Skiff Hook.

knot (kn or kt) A unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile (6,080 feet) per hour. Ameasurement of a ship’s speed through water. A collective term forhitches and bends.

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Glossary

Glossary-18

landmarkboundariesmethod

In SAR, one of several methods to define a search area.

Lateral marks Buoys or beacons that indicate port and starboard sides of a route and areused in conjunction with a “Conventional direction of buoyage.”

lateral system A system of aids to navigation in which characteristics of buoys andbeacons indicate the sides of the channel or route relative to aconventional direction of buoyage (usually upstream).

Lateral System ofBuoyage

See Lateral System.

latitude The measure of angular distance in degrees, minutes, and seconds of arcfrom 0 degrees to 90 degrees north or south of the equator.

lazarette Compartment in the extreme after part of the boat generally used forstorage.

leeward The side or direction away from the wind, the lee side.

leeway Drift of an object with the wind, on the surface of the sea. The sidewardmotion of a ship because of wind and current, the difference between herheading (course steered) and her track (course made good). Sometimescalled drift. In SAR, movement of search object through water caused bylocal winds blowing against that object.

life jacket See Personal Flotation Device.

life ring (ringbuoy)

Buoyant device, usually fitted with a light & smoke marker, for throwingto a person in the water.

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Glossary

Glossary-19

lifeline Line secured along the deck to lay hold of in heavy weather; any line usedto assist personnel; knotted line secured to the span of lifeboatdavits(manropes or monkey lines) for the use of the crew when hoistingand lowering. The lines between stanchions along the outboard edges of aship’s weather decks are all loosely referred to as lifelines, but specificallythe top line is the lifeline, middle is the housing line, and bottom is thefootline. Any line attached to a lifeboat or life raft to assist people in thewater. Also called a grab rope.

light The signal emitted by a lighted aid to navigation. The illuminatingapparatus used to emit the light signal. A lighted aid to navigation on afixed structure.

light buoy Floating framework aid to navigation, supporting a light, usually poweredby battery.

light list A United States Coast Guard publication (multiple volumes) that givesdetailed information on aids to navigation.

light rhythms Different patterns of lights, and flashing combinations that indicate to themariner the purpose of the aid to navigation on which it is installed.

light sector The arc over which a light is visible, described in degrees true, asobserved from seaward towards the light. May be used to definedistinctive color difference of two adjoining sectors, or an obscuredsector.

lighthouse A lighted beacon of major importance. Fixed structures ranging in sizefrom the typical major seacoast lighthouse to much smaller, single pilestructures. Placed on shore or on marine sites and most often do not showlateral aid to navigation markings. They assist the mariner in determininghis position or safe course, or warn of obstructions or dangers tonavigation. Lighthouses with no lateral significance usually exhibit a whitelight, but can use sectored lights to mark shoals or warn mariners of otherdangers.

list Permanent leaning of a vessel to port or starboard.

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Glossary

Glossary-20

local notice tomariners

A written document issued by each U.S. Coast Guard district todisseminate important information affecting aids to navigation, dredging,marine construction, special marine activities, and bridge construction onthe waterways with that district.

log Device for measuring a ship’s speed and distance traveled through thewater. To record something is to log it. Short for logbook.

logbook Any chronological record of events, as an engineering watch log.

longitude A measure of angular distance in degrees, minutes, and seconds east orwest of the Prime Meridian at Greenwich.

longitudinal A structural member laid parallel to the keel upon which the plating orplanking is secured. Longitudinals usually intersect frames to complete theskeletal framework of a vessel.

longshore current Currents that run parallel to the shore and inside the breakers as a resultof the water transported to the beach by the waves.

lookout A person stationed as a visual watch

LORAN-C An acronym for LOng Range Aid to Navigation; an electronic aid tonavigation consisting of shore-based radio transmitters

loud hailer A loud speaker; public address system.

magnetic compass A compass using the earth’s magnetic field to align the compass card. (seeCompass)

magnetic course(M)

Course relative to magnetic north; compass course corrected fordeviation..

MARB Marine Assistance Radio Broadcast

maritime Located on or close to the sea; of or concerned with shipping ornavigation.

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Glossary

Glossary-21

mark A visual aid to navigation. Often called navigation mark, includes floatingmarks (buoys) and fixed marks (beacons).

marline Small stuff (cord) tarred. Used for mousing, etc.

mast A spar located above the keel and rising above the main deck to whichmay be attached sails, navigation lights, and/or various electronichardware. The mast will vary in height depending on vessel type or use.

MAYDAY Spoken international distress signal, repeated three times. Derived fromthe French M’aider (help me).

MEDEVAC “Medical Evacuation” Evacuation of a person for medical reasons.

messenger Light line used to carry across a larger line or hawser. Person who carriesmessages for OOD or other officers of the watch.

mid-channel Center of a navigable channel. May be marked by safemarks.

Modified U.S. AidSystem

Used on the Intracoastal waterway, these aids are also equipped withspecial yellow strips, triangles, or squares. When used on the westernrivers (Mississippi River System), these aids are not numbered(Mississippi River System above Baton Rouge and Alabama Rivers).

mooring Chain or synthetic line that attaches a floating object to a stationaryobject. (e.g., dock, sinker)

mooring buoy White buoy with a blue stripe, used for a vessel to tie up to, alsodesignates an anchorage area.

Motor Lifeboat(MLB)

Coast Guard boat designed to perform SAR missions, including surf andbar operations, in adverse weather and sea conditions. They are self-righting and self-bailing.

mousing The use of small stuff or wire to hold together components that wouldotherwise work loose due to friction (i.e., mousing the screw pin of ashackle into place).

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Glossary

Glossary-22

N-Dura hose Double synthetic jacketed and impregnated rubber lined hose, orange incolor, used in the Coast Guard for fire fighting.

nautical chart Printed or electronic geographic representation of waterways showingpositions of aids to navigation and other fixed points and references toguide the mariner.

nautical mile(NM)

2000 yards; Length of one minute of arc of the great circle of the earth;6,076 feet compared to 5,280 feet per a statute (land) mile.

nautical slide rule An instrument used to solve time, speed, and distance problems.

navigable channel A channel that has sufficient depth to be safely navigated by a vessel.

navigable waters Coastal waters, including bays, sounds, rivers, and lakes, that arenavigable from the sea.

navigation The art and science of locating the position and plotting the course of aship or aircraft

night sun A helicopter’s light that is an effective search tool at night in a clearatmosphere with no moisture in the air.

noise The result of the propeller blade at the top of the arc transfering energy tothe hull.

normal endurance The average length of time, i.e., the average length of time to expect aboat crew to remain on a mission.

nun buoy (conical) Buoy that is cylindrical at the water line, tapering to a blunt point at thetop. Lateral mark that is red, even numbered, and usually marks the porthand side proceeding to seaward.

obstruction aid See Junction Aid.

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Glossary

Glossary-23

occulting light A light in which the total duration of light in each period is clearly longerthan the total duration of darkness and in which the intervals of darknessare all of equal duration. (Commonly used for single-occulting light whichexhibits only single occulations that are repeated at regular intervals.)

Officer of the Deck(day) (OOD)

An officer in charge of the ship representing the commanding officer.Officer of the day at shore activities.

offshore The region seaward of a specified depth. Opposite is inshore or near-shore.

on scene The search area or the actual distress site.

On SceneCommander(OSC)

A person designated to coordinate search and rescue operations within aspecified area associated with a distress incident.

opening Refers to the increasing of distance between two vessels.

out of step Refers to the position of two boats (i.e., towing operations) where oneboat is on the top of the crest of a wave and the other is in the troughbetween the waves.

outboard In the direction away from the center line of the ship. Opposite is inboard.

outdrive A vessel’s drive unit.

overdue Term used when a vessel or person has not arrived at the time and placeexpected.

overhauling thefire

The general procedures done after a fire has been extinguished. Theyinclude breaking up combustible material with a fire ax or a fire rake andcooling the fire area with water or fog.

overload Exceeding the designed load limits of a vessel; exceeding therecommended work load of line or wire rope.

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Glossary

Glossary-24

pacing Refers to two vessels matching speed and course.

pad eye A metal ring welded to the deck or bulkhead.

painter line(painter)

A line at the bow or stern of a boat which is used for making fast; a singleline used to take a vessel in tow alongside, commonly used with ships andtheir boats when placing the boat into use over the side.

parallel approach Arc approach used where one vessel is approached parallel to another.

parallel trackpattern

In SAR, one of several types of search patterns. There are two paralleltrack patterns; they are (1) single unit (PS) (2) and multi-unit (PM).

passenger space A space aboard a vessel that is designated for passengers.

Persons On Board(POB)

The number of people aboard a craft.

personal flotationdevice (PFD)

A general name for various types of devices designed to keep a personafloat in water (e.g., life preserver, vest, cushion, ring, and otherthrowable items).

personnel markerlight (PML)

Device that uses either a battery or chemical action to provide light forthe wearer to be seen during darkness.

piling A long, heavy timber driven into the seabed or river bed to serve as asupport for an aid to navigation or dock.

pitch The vertical motion of a ship’s bow or stern in a seaway about theathwartships axis. Of a propeller, the axial advance during one revolution.(see Roll, Yaw, Heaving, Sway, Surge)

pitchpole Term that refers to a vessel going end-over-end, caused by large waves orheavy surf. The bow buries itself in the wave and the stern pitches overthe bow, capsizing the vessel.

planing hull A boat design that allows the vessel to ride with the majority of it’s hullout of the water once it’s cruising speed is reached (e.g., 8 meter RHI).

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Glossary

Glossary-25

polyethylene floatline

A line that floats, used with rescue devices, life rings.

port Left side of vessel looking forward toward the bow.

port hole An opening in the hull, door, or superstructure of a boat/ship oftencovered with a watertight closure made of metal or wood.

port light A port hole closure or covering having a glass lens through which lightmay pass.

preferred channelmark

A lateral mark indicating a channel junction, or a wreck or otherobstruction which, after consulting a chart, may be passed on either side.

preventer line(preventer)

Any line used for additional safety or security or to keep something fromfalling or running free.

primary aid tonavigation

An aid to navigation established for the purpose of making landfalls andcoastwise passages from headland to headland.

probability ofdetection (POD)

The probability of the search object being detected, assuming it was in theareas searched.

probability ofsuccess (POS)

The probability of finding the search object with a particular search.

proceeding fromseaward

Following the Atlantic coast in a southerly direction, northerly andwesterly along the Gulf coast and in a northerly direction on the Pacificcoast. On the Great Lakes proceeding from seaward means following agenerally westerly and northerly direction, except on Lake Michiganwhere the direction is southerly. On the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers andtheir tributaries, proceeding from seaward means from the Gulf of Mexicotoward the headwaters of the rivers (upstream).

prop wash The result of the propeller blade at the top of the arc transfering energy tothe water surface.

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Glossary

Glossary-26

propeller A device consisting of a central hub with radiating blades forming ahelical pattern and when turned in the water creates a discharge thatdrives a boat.

pyrotechnics Ammunition, flares, or fireworks used for signaling, illuminating, ormarking targets.

quarantineanchorage buoy

A yellow special purpose buoy indicating a vessel is under quarantine.

quarter One side or the other of the stern of a ship. To be broad on the quartermeans to be 45 degrees away from dead astern, starboard or port quarteris used to indicate a specific side.

RACON See Radar Beacon

RADAR Radio Detecting And Ranging . An electronic system designed totransmit radio signals and receive reflected images of those signals from a“target” in order to determine the bearing and distance to the ‘target.”

radar beacon(RACON)

A radar beacon that produces a coded response, or radar paint, whentriggered by a radar signal.

radar reflector A special fixture fitted to or incorporated into the design of certain aids tonavigation to enhance their ability to reflect radar energy. In general,these fixtures will materially improve the aid to navigation for use byvessels with radar. They help radar equipped vessels to detect buoys andbeacons. They do not positively identify a radar target as an aid tonavigation. Also used on small craft with low RADAR profiles.

radiation fog A type of fog that occurs mainly at night with the cooling of the earth’ssurface and the air, which is then cooled below its dew point as it touchesthe ground; most common in middle and high latitudes, near the inlandlakes and rivers; burns off with sunlight.

radio watch Person assigned to stand by and monitor the radios. Responsible forroutine communication and logging, as well as properly handlingresponses to emergency radio communications.

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Glossary

Glossary-27

radiobeacon Electronic apparatus which transmits a radio signal for use in providing amariner a line of position. First electronic system of navigation. Providedoffshore coverage and became the first all-weather electronic aid tonavigation.

range A measurement of distance usually given in yards. Also, a line formed bythe extension of a line connecting two charted points.

range lights Two lights associated to form a range which often, but not necessarily,indicates a channel centerline. The front range light is the lower of thetwo, and nearer to the mariner using the range. The rear range light ishigher and further from the mariner.

range line The lining up of range lights and markers to determine the safe andcorrect line of travel, the specific course to steer to remain in the center ofthe channel.

range marker High visibility markers that have no lights. (see range lights)

re-flash watch A watch established to prevent a possible re-flash or rekindle of a fireafter a fire has been put out.

re-float The act of ungrounding a boat.

red, right,returning

Saying to remember which aids you should be seeing off vessel’sstarboard side when returning from seaward.

regulatory marks A white and orange aid to navigation with no lateral significance. Used toindicate a special meaning to the mariner, such as danger, restrictedoperations, or exclusion area.

rescue basket Device for lifting an injured or exhausted person out of the water.

rescue swimmer In the Coast Guard, a specially trained individual that is deployed from ahelicopters, boats, or cutters to recover an incapacitated victim from thewater, day or night.

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Glossary

Glossary-28

retroreflectivematerial

Material that reflects light. Can be found on equipment such as PFDs orhypothermia protective clothing.

rig To devise, set up, arrange. An arrangement or contrivance. Generaldescription of a ship’s upper works; to set up spars or to fit out. A

distinctive arrangement of sails (rigging), as in a schooner rig. Anarrangement of equipment and machinery, as an oil rig.

rigging The ropes, lines, wires, turnbuckles, and other gear supporting andattached to stacks, masts and topside structures. Standing rigging more orless permanently fixed. Running rigging is adjustable, e.g., cargo handlinggear.

rip current Currents created along a long beach or reef surf zone due to water fromwaves hitting the beach and traveling out to the sides and parallel to theshore line, creating a longshore current that eventually returns to sea.

riprap Stone or broken rock thrown together without order to form a protectivewall around a navigation aid.

river current Flow of water in a river.

roll Vessel motion caused by a wave lifting up one side of the vessel, rollingunder the vessel and dropping that side, then lifting the other side anddropping it in turn.

roller A long usually non-breaking wave generated by distant winds and asource of big surf, which is a hazard to boats.

rooster tail A pronounced aerated-water discharge astern of a craft; an indicator ofwaterjet propulsion.

rough bar Rough bar is determined to exist when breaking seas exceed 8 feet and/orwhen, in the judgment of the Commanding Officer/Officer in Charge,rough bar/surf conditions exist, and/or whenever there is doubt in thejudgment of the coxswain as to the present conditions.

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Glossary

Glossary-29

RTV Silicone rubber used for plugging holes and seams. Sticks to wet surfacesand will set up under water. Used in damage control for temporaryrepairs.

rubrail A permanent fixture, often running the length of a boat, made of rubberthat provides protection much as a fender would.

rudder A flat surface rigged vertically astern used to steer a ship, boat, oraircraft.

safe water marks(fairways, mid-channels)

Used to mark fairways, mid-channels, and offshore approach points, andhave unobstructed water on all sides. They may have a red sphericalshape, or a red spherical topmark, are red and white vertically striped, andif lighted, display a white light with Morse code “A” (short-long flash).

sail area On a vessel, the amount of surface upon which the wind acts.

Sampson post Vertical timber or metal post on the forward deck of a boat used intowing and securing. Sometimes used as synonym for King Post.

SAR emergencyphases

Refers to 3 phases of SAR levels and responses. These are: (1)Uncertainty (key word: “doubt”); (2) Alert (key word: “apprehension”);and (3) Distress (key words: “grave and imminent danger” requiring“immediate assistance”).

SAR incidentfolder/form

A form to record essential elements of a case. Information needed isoutlined with blanks left to fill in necessary information as caseprogresses.

SAR MissionCoordinator(SMC)

The official temporarily assigned to coordinate response to an actual orapparent distress situation.

SARSAT See Cospas-Sarsat System. Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking.

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Glossary

Glossary-30

scope Length of anchor line or chain. Number of fathoms of chain out toanchor or mooring buoy. If to anchor, scope is increased in strong windsfor more holding power. Also, the length of towline or distance from thestern of the towing vessel to the bow of the tow.

scouring A method to refloat a stranded boat using the current from the assistingboat’s screw to “scour” or create a channel for the grounded boat, in the

sand, mud or gravel bottom when the water depth allows the assistingboat access.

screw A vessel’s propeller.

scupper An opening in the gunwale or deck of a boat which allows water takenover the side to exit. Common to most self-bailing boats.

scuttle Small, quick-closing access hole; to sink a ship deliberately.

sea anchor Device, usually of wood and/or canvas, streamed by a vessel in heavyweather to hold the bow up to the sea. It’s effect is similar to a drogue inthat it slows the vessels rate of drift. However, it is usually made off tothe bow opposed to the stern as in the use of a drogue.

sea chest Intake between ship’s side and sea valve or seaco*ck. Sailor’s trunk. Athrough hull fitting used in the vessels engine cooling systems. It allowsthe vessel to take on sea water through a closed piping system.

sea chest gatevalve

A gate valve used in between the sea chest and the fire pump or enginecooling system.

sea co*ck Valve in the ship’s hull through which sea water may pass.

sea current Movement of water in the open sea.

sea drogue See Sea Anchor.

seabed Ocean floor.

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Glossary

Glossary-31

Search and RescueUnit (SRU)

A unit composed of trained personnel and provided with equipmentsuitable for the expeditious conduct of search and rescue operations.

search pattern A track line or procedure assigned to an SRU for searching a specifiedarea.

seaward Toward the main body of water, ocean. On the Intracoastal Waterway,returning from seaward is from north to south on the eastern U.S. coast,east to west across the Gulf of Mexico, and south to north along thewestern seacoast.

seaworthy Refers to a vessel capable of putting to sea and meeting any usual seacondition. A seagoing ship may for some reason not be seaworthy, suchas when damaged.

set (of a current) The direction toward which the water is flowing. A ship is set by thecurrent. A southerly current and a north wind are going in the samedirection. Measured in degrees (usually True).

shackle U-shaped metal fitting, closed at the open end with a pin, used to connectwire, chain, or line.

shaft A cylindrical bar that transmits energy from the engine to the propeller.

ship Any vessel of considerable size navigating deep water, especially onepowered by engines and larger than a boat. Also, to set up, to secure inplace. To take something aboard.

shock load Resistance forces caused by intermittent and varying forces of waves orsea conditions encounter by a towing boat on its towing lines andequipment.

short range aids tonavigation

Aids to navigation limited in visibility to the mariner (e.g., lighthouses,sector lights, ranges, LNBs, buoys, daymarks, etc.)

Signal Kit/MK-79 Used to signal aircraft and vessels. Each cartridge flare burns red, has aminimum duration of 4.5 seconds, and reaches a height of 250' to 600.'

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sinkers Concrete anchors in various sizes and shapes on the seabed that buoybodies are attached to by chain or synthetic rope moorings.

siren A sound signal which uses electricity or compressed air to actuate either adisc or a cup-shaped rotor.

Situation Report(SITREP)

Reports to interested agencies to keep them informed of on-sceneconditions and mission progress.

skeg Continuation of the keel aft under the propeller; in some cases, supportsthe rudder post.

skiff hook (kickerhook)

Consists of a ladder hook or a stainless steel safety hook to which a sixinch length of stainless steel round stock has been welded. A hook that isused in attaching a tow line to a small trailerable boat, using the trailereyebolt on the boat.

slack water The period that occurs while the current is changing direction and has nohorizontal motion.

sling A type of rescue device used by a helicopter to hoist uninjured personnel;a lifting device for hoisting cargo.

slip clove hitch Hitch used when it may be necessary to release a piece of equipmentquickly (i.e., fenders or fender board).

smoke andillumination signal

Signal used to attract vessels and aircraft. It has a night end and a dayend. The night end produces a red flame, the day end has an orangesmoke.

sound buoys Buoys that warn of danger; they are distinguished by their tone and phasecharacteristics.

sound signal A device that transmits sound, intended to provide information tomariners during periods of restricted visibility and foul weather; a signalused to communicate a maneuver between vessels in sight of each other.

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special purposebuoys

Also called Special Marks, they are yellow and are not intended to assistin navigation, but to alert the mariner to a special feature or area.

spring line A mooring line that makes an acute angle with the ship and the pier towhich moored, as opposed to a breast line, which is perpendicular, ornearly so, to the pier face; a line used in towing alongside that enables thetowing vessel to move the tow forward and/or back the tow (i.e., towspring and backing spring).

square daymarks Seen entering from seaward or from north or east proceeding south orwest on port hand side of channel (lateral system of buoyage). Green, oddnumbered.

stanchion Vertical metal or wood post aboard a vessel.

standard navypreserver (vesttype with collar)

A Navy PFD vest used by the Coast Guard onboard cutters. Allows userto relax, save energy, increase survival time and will keep users head outof water, even if user is unconscious. Not found as part of a boat outfit.

starboard Right side of the vessel looking forward toward the bow.

starboard handmark

A buoy or beacon which is left to the starboard hand when proceeding inthe “conventional direction of buoyage.” Lateral marks positioned on theright side of the channel returning from seaward. Nun buoys are red, daybeacons are red, bordered with dark red and triangular shaped.

static dischargewand

A pole like device used to discharge the static electricity during helicopterhoisting/rescue operations. Also known as a Deadman’s Stick.

static electricity A quantity of electricity that builds up in an object and does not dischargeuntil provided a path of flow.

static forces Constant or internal forces.

station buoy An unlighted buoy set near a Large Navigation Buoy or an importantbuoy as a reference point should the primary aid to navigation be movedfrom its assigned position.

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station keeping The art of keeping a boat in position, relative to another boat, aid, orobject with regard to current, sea, and/or weather conditions.

steerage The act or practice of steering. A ship’s steering mechanism.

steerageway The lowest speed at which a vessel can be steered.

stem The principal timber at the bow of a wooden ship, to which the bowplanks are rabbeted. Its lower end is scarfed to the keel, and the bowspritrests on the upper end. The cutwater, or false stem (analogous to falsekeel), is attached to the fore part of the stem and may be carved orotherwise embellished, especially in the vicinity of the figurehead, whichusually rests upon it. In steel ships, the stem is the foremost vertical ornear-vertical strength member, around which or to which the plating ofthe bow is welded or riveted. Compare stern-post.

stem pad eye(trailer eye bolt)

An attaching point available on most trailerized small boats.

stem the forces To keep the current or wind directly on the bow or stern and holdposition by setting boat speed to equally oppose the speed of drift.

stern The extreme after end of a vessel.

stokes litter A rescue device generally used to transport non-ambulatory persons orpersons who have injuries that might be aggravated by other means oftransportation.

strobe light Device that emits a high intensity flashing light visible for great distances.Used to attract the attention of aircraft, ships, or ground parties, it flasheswhite light at 50 plus or minus 10 times per minute.

strut An external support for the propeller shaft integral to the hull/under waterbody.

superstructure Any raised portion of a vessel’s hull above a continuous deck (e.g., pilothouse).

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Glossary-35

surf In the Coat Guard, surf is determined to exist when breaking seas exceed8 feet and/or when, in the judgment of the Commanding Officer/Officer inCharge, rough bar/surf conditions exist, and/or whenever there is doubt inthe mind of the coxswain as to the present conditions.

surf line The outermost line of waves that break near shore, over a reef, or shoal.Generally refers to the outermost line of consistent surf.

Surf Rescue Boat(SRB)

Coast Guard boat used to perform SAR missions, including surf and baroperations in adverse weather and sea conditions. They are self-rightingand self-bailing. Fast response for rescuing people, and delivering damagecontrol equipment or emergency medical services. They are an alternative,not a primary resource, and are used to arrive on scene quickly andstabilize a situation until a more capable unit arrives.

surf zone The area near shore in which breaking occurs continuously in variousintensities.

surface swimmer In the Coast Guard, a specially trained individual that is deployed fromfloating units, piers, or the shore to help people in the water.

survival kit Kit designed to aid a person in the water to survive. Consists of a beltattached around the waist. A personal signal kit is also attached. Boatcrews are provided with a vest containing the items found in the signal kitas prescribed in the Rescue and Survival Systems Manual.

sweep width (W) A measure of the detection capability, or distance on both sides of theSRU, based on target characteristics, weather, and other factors.

swell Wind-generated waves which have advanced into a calmer area and aredecreased in height and gaining a more rounded form. The heave of thesea. (see Roller)

swimmer’s harness A harness used to tether and retrieve surface swimmers duringrescue/recovery operations.

tactical diameter The distance made to the right or left of the original course when a turn of180 degrees has been completed with the rudder at a constant angle.

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Glossary

Glossary-36

taffrail A rail around a vessel’s stern over which a towline is passed. Used toreduce the effects of chaffing on the towline.

tag line (trail line) Line used to steady a load being swung in or out.

tandem An arrangement of two or more persons, vessels or objects placed onebehind the other.

thimble Metal ring grooved to fit inside a grommet or eye splice.

through bolt A bolt that is used to fasten a fitting to the deck. It goes through the deckand backing plate (located below deck).

thumbs up Signal given by the designated crewmember to indicate hoisting operationis to begin.

tidal current Horizontal motion of water caused by the vertical rise and fall of the tide.

tide Periodic vertical rise and fall of the water resulting from the gravitationalinteractions between the sun, moon, and earth.

tie down Fittings that can be used to secure lines on a deck or dock.

toed (“toed in”) In a side by side towing operation, “toed” refers to the bow of the towedboat slightly angled toward the bow of the towing boat.

topmarks One or more relatively small objects of characteristic shape and colorplaced on an aid to identify its purpose. (i.e., pillar buoys surmountedwith colored shapes).

topside Area above the main deck on a vessel; weather deck.

tow line A line, cable, or chain used in towing a vessel.

tow strap When towing along side the tow strap is secured near the towing vessel’sbow and the towed vessel’s stern (see SPRING LINE)

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Glossary-37

towing bridle See Bridle.

towing hardware Hardware used in towing. (i.e., towing bitt, various cleats, bitts, deckfittings, or trailer eyebolts)

towing watch A crewmember who monitors the safety of a towing operation.Responsible to the coxswain.

track spacing (S) The distance between adjacent parallel search tracks (legs).

trail line (tag line) A weighted line that is lowered from a helo before the rescue device. Itspurpose is to allow the personnel below to guide and control the rescuedevice as it is lowered.

transom Planking across the stern of a vessel.

triage The process of assessing survivors according to medical condition andassigning them priorities for emergency care, treatment, and evacuation.

triangulardaymark

Seen entering rom seaward, or from the north or east proceeding south orwest on starboard hand side of channel (lateral system of buoyage). Red,even numbered.

trim The fore-and-aft inclination of a ship, down by the head or down by thestern. Sometimes used to include list. Also means shipshape, neat.

trim control A control that adjusts the propeller axis angle with horizontal.

tripping line Small line attached to the small end of a drogue, so the device can beturned around to be retrieved.

trough The valley between waves.

U.S. Aids toNavigation System

System encompasses buoys and beacons conforming to (or beingconverted to) the IALA (International Association of LighthouseAuthorities), buoyage guidelines and other short range aids to navigationnot covered by these guidelines. These other aids to navigation arelighthouses, sector lights, ranges, and large navigation buoys (LNBs).

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Glossary

Glossary-38

Uniform StateWaterwayMarking System(USWMS)

Designed for use on lakes and other inland waterways that are notportrayed on nautical charts. Authorized for use on other waters as well.Supplemented the existing federal marking system and is generallycompatible with it.

Utility Boat (UTB) 41' UTB, Coast Guard Utility boat is light weight and possesses a deep“V” planing hull constructed of aluminum. It is fast, powerful,maneuverable and designed to operate in moderate weather and sea

conditions. It normally carries a crew of three, a coxswain, boat engineer,and crewmember.

vari-nozzle A fire-fighting nozzle having a fully adjustable spray head that allows theoperator to deliver a wide range of spray patterns (from stream to lowvelocity fog).

venturi effect To move a water from one place to another by entraining the pumpedliquid in a rapidly flowing stream. It is the principle used by the eductor indewatering a vessel.

vessel By U.S. statutes, includes every description of craft, ship or othercontrivance used as a means of transportation on water. “Any vehicle inwhich man or goods are carried on water.” (see Ship)

waist and/or tagline

Lines used to secure the hull or cabin bridles in position for towing.

wake The disturbed water astern of a moving vessel.

watch circle The circle in which an anchored buoy or object moves on the surface inrelationship to tides, currents and wind.

watertightintegrity

The closing down of openings to prevent entrance of water into vessel.

wave Waves are periodic disturbances of the sea surface, caused by wind (andsometimes by earthquakes).

wave frequency The number of crests passing a fixed point in a given time.

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Glossary

Glossary-39

wave height The height from the bottom of a wave’s trough to the top of its crest;measured in the vertical, not diagonal.

wave interference Caused by waves, refracted or reflected, interacting with other waves,often increasing or decreasing wave height.

wave length The distance from one wave crest to the next in the same wave group orseries.

wave period The time, in seconds, it takes for two successive crests to pass a fixedpoint.

wave reflection The tendency of a wave to move back towards the incoming waves inresponse to interaction with any obstacle.

wave refraction The tendency of a wave to bend in response to interaction with thebottom and slows in shoal areas. Refraction also occurs when a wavepasses around a point of land, jetty, or an island.

wave saddle The lowest part of a wave, bordered on both sides by higher ones; oftensmall, unbroken section of a wave that is breaking.

wave series A group of waves that seem to travel together, at the same speed.

wave shoulder The edge of a wave. It may be the very edge of the whitewater on abreaker, or the edge of a high peaking wave that is about to break.

wedge Used as temporary repair in event of damage aboard vessel. Made of softwood they are forced into holes or damaged areas to stop leaking, or toplug damaged structures or to reinforce shoving. Part of a damage controlkit.

well deck Part of the weather deck having some sort of superstructure both forwardand aft of it. A vertically recessed area in the main deck that allows thecrewmember to work low to the water.

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Glossary

Glossary-40

wet suit A tight-fitting rubber suit worn by a skin diver in order to retain bodyheat. Designed to protect wearer from exposure to cold, wind, and spray.Constructed of foam neoprene, a durable and elastic material withexcellent flotation characteristics. These buoyancy characteristics, whichaffect your entire body, will cause you to float horizontally, either face upor face down.

whistle A piece of survival equipment used to produce a shrill sound by blowingon or through it. To summon, signal or direct by whistling. A device formaking whistling sounds by means of forced air or steam. A whistlingsound used to summon or command. It is attached to some PFDs and isan optional item for the personal signal kit. It has proven very useful inlocating survivors in inclement weather and can be heard up to 1,000yards.

whistle buoy A wave actuated sound signal on buoys which produces sound byemitting compressed air through a circumferential slot into a cylindricalbell chamber. Found outside harbors. Sound range greater than 1 mile.

white water See Foam Crest.

Williamson turn Used if an individual or object falls overboard during periods of darknessor restricted visibility and the exact time of the incident is unknown. Doneby turning 60 degrees to port or starboard from the original course, thereshifting rubber until vessel comes about on a reverse course. May be oflittle value to boats having a small turning radius.

wind-chill factor An estimated measurement of the cooling effect of a combination of airtemperature and wind speed in relation to the loss of body heat fromexposed skin.

wind direction The true heading from which the wind blows.

wind drivencurrent

The effect of wind pushing water in the direction of the wind.

window An area where the waves have momentarily stopped breaking, opening upa safer area of operation for a vessel.

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Glossary-41

wind shadow When an object blocks the wind, creating an area of no wind.

windward Towards the wind.

yaw Rotary oscillation about a ship’s vertical axis in a seaway. Sheering offalternately to port and starboard.

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Glossary

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Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviations & Acronyms -1

Abbreviations and Acronyms

A/C Aircraft

AM Amplitude Modulation

AMVER Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue

AOR Area of Responsibility

ATC Air Traffic Control

ATON Aids To Navigation

C Course

C Coverage Factor

C/C Cabin Cruiser

CO Commanding Officer

COLREGS International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea.

CS Call Sign

CS Creeping Line Search

CSC Creeping Line Search - Coordinated

CSP Commence Search Point

DF Direction Finding

DGPS Differential Global Positioning System

DIW Dead In The Water

DMB Datum Marker Buoy

DR Dead Reckoning

DSC Digital Selective Calling

ELT Emergency Locator Transmitter

EMT Emergency Medical Technician

EPIRB Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon

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Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviations & Acronyms - 2

ETA Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD Estimated Time of Departure

F/V Fishing Vessel

FM Frequency Modulation

GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

GPM Gallons Per Minute

GPS Global Positioning System

HF High Frequency

I/B Inboard

I/O Inboard/Outdrive

ICS Incident Command System

ICW Intracoastal Waterway

IMO International Maritime Organization

INMARSAT International Monitoring Satellite Organization

KHz Kilohertz

Kn or Kt Knot (Nautical Mile Per Hour)

Lat Latitude

LKP Last Known Position

LNB Large Navigation Buoy

Lon or Long Longitude

LOP Line of Position

m Meter

M Magnetic Course

M/V Merchant Vessel

MEDEVAC Medical Evacuation

MF Medium Frequency

MHz Megahertz

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Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviations & Acronyms -3

MLB Motor Lifeboat

NM Nautical Mile

NOS National Ocean Service

NVG Night Vision Goggles

O/B Outboard

OIC Officer-In-Charge; also OINC

OOD Officer of the Deck (Day)

OPAREA Operating Area

OSC On-Scene Commander

P/C Pleasure Craft

PFD Personal Flotation Device

PIW Person In Water

PML Personnel Marker Light

POB Persons On Board

POD Probability of detection

POS Probability of success

PS Parallel Sweep Search

PSI Pounds per Square Inch

RACON Radar Beacon

RCC Rescue Coordination Center

RHIB Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat

RPM Revolution Per Minute

RSC Rescue Sub-Center

S/S Steam Ship

S/V Sailing Vessel

SAR Search and Rescue

SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking

SITREP Situation Report

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Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviations & Acronyms - 4

SMC Search And Rescue Mission Coordinator

SOA Speed of Advance

SRB Surf Rescue Boat (Coast Guard)

SRU Search and Rescue Unit

SS Expanding Square Search

T True Course

TS Track Line Search or Trach Spacing

UHF Ultra High Frequency

UMIB Urgent Marine Information Broadcast

USWMS Uniform State Waterway Marking System

UTB Utility Boat (Coast Guard)

UTC Universal Time Coordinated

VHF Very High Frequency

VS Sector Search

W Sweep Width

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Coast Guard Boat Crew Seamanship Manual

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Chapter 1: Boat Crew Duties andResponsibilities

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

Coast Guard and Auxiliary boat crews perform duties requiring both skilland knowledge. This chapter discusses general crew duties and relatedprocedures for watchstanding necessary for the successful completion ofCoast Guard missions. The general duties for crew members are outlinedin this chapter. Assignments and procedures for specific tasks, such astowing or retrieving people from the water, are found in other chapters.

In this chapter This chapter is divided into three sections.

Section Title See PageA The Boat Crew 1-3B Boat Crew Duties 1-5C Watchstanding Responsibilities 1-13

Appendix 1-A Pre-Underway Checklist 1-27Appendix 1-B Normal Cruising Checklist 1-31Appendix 1-C Auxiliary Pre-Underway Checklist 1-33

More specificinformation forAuxiliary boatcrews may be foundin COMDTINSTM16798.3 (series)AuxiliaryOperations PolicyManual.

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Section A. The Boat Crew

Overview

A.1. Introduction There are three basic boat crew positions on Coast Guard boats:

• Coxswain

• Engineer (the Auxiliary program does not have a boat engineerposition)

• Crew member

A.2. Determiningcrew size

There are several factors in determining crew size:

• Boat type

• Operational need

• Minimum crew size prescribed by higher authority

A.3. Minimumcrew size

Commandant sets minimum crew sizes for standard boats. For example,the 47' motor life boat (MLB) carries a minimum crew of four -- acoxswain, an engineer, and two crew members. Area and DistrictCommanders set minimum crew sizes for non-standard boats assigned totheir units. Coast Guard boats and Auxiliary facilities may carry two tosix people as crew. Many times, only a coxswain and a crew membercomprise the crew for a nonstandard boat, Auxiliary facility, or for acutter's boat.

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A.4. Qualificationand certification

Boat crew members, engineers, and coxswains are qualified and certifiedin accordance with the Boat Crew Training Manual, COMDTINSTM16114.9 (series). Qualification as a boat crew member is a prerequisiteto qualification as boat engineer, coxswain, and surfman. Coast GuardAuxiliarists may qualify and certify for crew member and engineer in thesame way. Auxiliarists are not permitted to be certified as coxswain onCoast Guard boats. Auxiliarists qualifications for crewing Auxiliaryfacilities are covered in the Auxiliary Boat Crew Training andQualification Guide - Crewman and Coxswain, COMDTINSTM16798.28 (series).

A.5. TheAuxiliary

An Auxiliarist on official orders may perform many Coast Guard duties,including boat crew member and boat engineer, but is not a militarymember of the Coast Guard. Although trained and qualified to anequivalent level, the Auxiliary member may not be assigned any authorityor responsibility specifically reserved by regulation for military or lawenforcement personnel.

A.5.a. Auxiliarycrew members

Since the coxswain of an Auxiliary facility is responsible for assigning(and often selecting) their crew members to duty, the controlling CoastGuard unit may not know the identity of all crew members. Therefore,the names of all crew members (including crew trainees) must be passedto the controlling unit by land line or other method immediately before thefacility’s departure to be sure an accurate accounting is on record.

For further guidance, refer to Auxiliary Operations Manual,COMDTINST M16798.3 (series) and directives issued by the DistrictDirector of Auxiliary.

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Section B. Boat Crew Duties

Overview

Introduction The Coast Guard and Auxiliary boat crew training programs are based onthe concept that sailors must be trained at sea. This manual, andspecifically this chapter, is designed to provide an outline of the dutiestypically performed by various members of boat crews and the skills andknowledge required to perform tasks assigned. For people seeking to bemembers of a boat crew, it is fundamental that they understand theseduties and the importance of crew members working together as a team.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageTrainee 1-6Crew Member 1-7Boat Engineer 1-9Coxswain 1-10Surfman 1-12

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Trainee

B.1. General A trainee can be either a Coast Guard Active Duty, Auxiliarist (referred toas Candidate), or Reservist who qualifies as a boat crew member. Thetrainee rides on board to only observe actual operational missions, not asa member of the crew counted towards minimum crew requirements.

B.2. Performance,skill, andknowledgerequirements

The duties of a trainee are to learn and safely perform the practical tasksprescribed for crew members. These duties are in the qualificationmanuals and are performed under the supervision of a qualified crewmember assigned to the boat.

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Crew Member

B.3. General

NOTE $$

Crew members safely perform their duties under the supervision of acoxswain. They stand:

• helm,

• lookout,

• towing watches, and

• anchor watch.

They also:

• • rig towing and mooring lines,

• • act as the surface swimmer,

• • administer first aid, and

• • operate damage control equipment.

This position provides valuable training for future duties andresponsibilities.

B.4. Performance,skill, andknowledgerequirements

To be effective, boat crew members must execute orders quickly and musthave the following knowledge and performance skills:

• Marlinespike seamanship and line handling

• Basic navigation (including radar) and boat handling

• Survival, safety, and damage control equipment

• Emergency and casualty control

• Watchstanding and communications

• First aid

• Preventive maintenance procedures for the boat in port

Refer to the CoastGuard Addendum tothe National SARManual,COMDTINSTM16130.2 (series)for policy onswimmers.) TheAuxiliary does nothave surfaceswimmers.

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B.4.a. Riskmanagement

A keen knowledge of the boat’s characteristics and limitations, the outfitequipment, and the stowage will be invaluable in times of crisis. Frequentdrills practicing the procedures for different emergency circ*mstances willteach crew members how to react correctly to each situation. All crewmembers must continuously think about emergency situations and answerthe hypothetical question, "What should I do if...?" so that it can beinstantly put into action when the question becomes, "What do I donow?"

B.4.b. Knowing theoperating area

Boat crew members must have knowledge of their local Operating Area(OPAREA), also called Area of Responsibility (AOR).

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Boat Engineer

B.5. General

NOTE $$

Boat engineers are responsible for propulsion and auxiliary machinerywhile underway. They also have other responsibilities:

• Boat crew member duties

• Preventive and corrective maintenance performed on the boat inport

B.6. Performance,skill, andknowledgerequirements

The skill and knowledge requirements for boat engineers are as extensiveas those for coxswains. They must be able to take quick and properaction when faced with any boat engineering casualty. In addition tobasic crew member skills, the following required knowledge andperformance skills are necessary:

• Demonstrate complete knowledge of general engineeringspecifications and functional performance characteristics.

• Perform pre-start, light off, and securing functions for propulsionmachinery.

• Monitor, detect, and respond to machinery and electrical systemcasualties or failures.

• Operate auxiliary machinery and systems, e.g., pumps, eductors,tillers, etc.

• Use on board damage control equipment to minimize damage fromfire, grounding, or collision.

There is no engineerposition in theAuxiliary program.

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Coxswain

B.7. General Coast Guard boats underway must have a coxswain on board who iscertified by the unit commander to operate that particular type of boat.The district director of Auxiliary certifies Auxiliary coxswains to operatean Auxiliary facility. Coxswains are in charge of the boat and crew. Thecoxswain’s duty is unique. The coxswain's range and degree ofresponsibility are comparable to that of a cutter's deck watch officer. TheCoast Guard places great trust in the coxswain's ability to provideeffective boat crew leadership, coordination, and risk management skills.(For more information on risk management, see Chapter 4 - TeamCoordination and Risk Assessment.)

B.8.Responsibility andauthority

The extent of the coxswain's responsibility and authority are specified inCoast Guard Regulations, COMDTINST M5000.3 (series). Coxswainsshall be responsible, in order of priority, for the following:

• Safety and conduct of passengers and crew

• Safe operation and navigation of the boat

• Completion of the sortie(s) or mission(s)

Coxswains will respond to the following:

• Hazards to life or property

• Violations of law or regulations, except for Auxiliarists

• Discrepancies in aids to navigation

B.9. Performance,skill, andknowledgerequirements

The knowledge requirements and performance skills for coxswains areextensive. Coxswains must apply good judgment, intelligence, andinitiative. They must make decisions with the safety of their crew andboat in mind. In addition to basic crew member skills, a coxswain requiresthese additional knowledge and performance skills:

• Demonstrate leadership that effectively coordinates, directs, andguides the performance of the boat crew during watches and tasks(e.g., towing, fog navigation, and man overboard).

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• Demonstrate correct application of regulations, policy, andguidance delineated by the unit commander or higher authority tothe circ*mstances at hand (e.g., safe navigation, safe speed, lawenforcement, and rendering assistance).

• Know the boat’s limitations:

− maximum sea conditions boat can operate in,

− maximum wind conditions boat can operate in, and

− maximum size of boat that can be towed by your boat(facility).

• Navigate and pilot a boat.

• Know the local OPAREA with minimal reference to charts andpublications.

• Demonstrate boat handling skills to safely and prudently controlthe movement of a boat while underway.

• Understand the principles of risk management and incorporatethem into the decision making process. These principles includedetection, identification, evaluation, and mitigation or control riskas part of making decisions (e.g., slow to safe speed in restrictedvisibility, cast off a tow because the assisted vessel is losingstability).

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Surfman

B.10. General

NOTE $$

The Surfman is considered an advanced coxswain qualification. ASurfman is a highly motivated, experienced boat handler capable ofoperating a Motor Lifeboat (MLB) or Surf Rescue Boat (SRB) in surf.The Surfman also leads, motivates and trains boat crews to operate inthese extreme types of conditions.

B.11.Performance, skill,and knowledgerequirements

A surfman must be previously qualified and certified as an MLBCoxswain. There are several knowledge and performance skills requiredin addition to basic Coxswain skills:

• Thorough understanding of ocean currents, weather, andhydrodynamics. How they pertain to the local bar/inlet conditions.

• Boat handling skills and procedures while operating in surf.

• Boat crew safety and emergency procedures.

B.12. Additionalresponsibilities

A Surfman is expected to have additional responsibilities at an MLBstation that include:

• Boat crew management in high risk, high stress situations.

• Monitor all levels of training. They must train and pass their skillsand experience on to new coxswains.

• Make important risk assessment decisions during heavy weatherand surf.

• Oversees readiness of equipment and personnel.

• Stand watch during heavy weather and surf conditions.

There is no Surfmanboat crew positionin the Auxiliaryprogram.

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Section C. Watchstanding Responsibilities

Overview

Introduction Under the direction of the coxswain, crew members are assigned variouswatches which are described in this section.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageLookout Watch 1-14Night Lookout Watch 1-21Helm Watch 1-22Towing Watch 1-23Anchor Watch 1-25

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Lookout Watch

C.1. Requirement The Navigation Rules, International-Inland, COMDTINST M16672.2(series) states that "Every vessel shall at all times maintain a properlookout by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriatein the prevailing circ*mstances and conditions so as to make a fullappraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision."

C.2. Assign andstation

NOTE $$

NOTE $$

Coxswains must assign and station lookouts properly in order to complywith the requirement noted above. Lookouts must report to the coxswaineverything seen, smelled, or heard while the boat is underway that mayendanger the boat or may indicate a situation to investigate (e.g., distress,law enforcement, or pollution). Some examples are:

• Ships

• Land

• Obstructions

• Lights

• Buoys

• Beacons

• Discolored water

• Reefs

• Fog signals

• Anything that could affect safe navigation

C.3. Guidelines Use the following guidelines to stand a proper lookout watch:

• Remain alert and give full attention to your assigned duty.

• Remain at your station until relieved.

It is most important for the coxswain to consider the experience level andabilities of individual crew members when making assignments. In the past,the inappropriate assignment of crew duties has contributed to mishapsresulting in fatalities.

Although notspecifically assignedthe duty of lookout,the entire crew mustperform lookoutduties unlessdirected otherwise.

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• Do not distract yourself or others with excessive conversation.(However, some conversation among crew members may bebeneficial in reducing fatigue and maintaining alertness.)

• Speak loudly and distinctly when making a report.

• If you cannot positively identify the object sighted, smelled orheard, report what you think at that moment.

• Repeat your report until it is acknowledged by the coxswain.

• When conditions impair your ability to see, smell, or hear; reportthe condition so the coxswain can take corrective action.

• Report everything you see including floating material, even if youhave to report it several times.

• Make certain you understand your duties. If you do notunderstand your duties, ask for more information.

C.4. Lookoutpositioning

Lookouts must be posted by the coxswain so they have the best possiblechance of seeing and hearing an approaching vessel or searching for anobject in the water. The coxswain should use the following steps whenpositioning lookouts:

Step Procedure1 Choose a boat speed that enables lookouts to effectively and

safely perform their duties.2 Position lookouts so they can effectively and safely perform

their duties under the operating conditions, e.g., restrictedvisibility, boat speed, sea state, weather.

3 During periods of rain, sleet, and snow or when taking sprayover the bow, select lookout positions that minimizeimpairment of vision.

4 During a search, post two lookouts when able. Lookoutsshould be positioned on each side of the vessel so that each canscan a sector from dead ahead to directly aft.

5 Select a stable location that will not place the lookouts indanger of being blown or swept overboard.

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C.5. Objectidentification

Lookouts must report what they see, smell, or hear with as much detail aspossible. Object type is immediately important (vessel, buoy, breakingwaves), but additional details may help the coxswain in decision making.The following are some obvious characteristics of objects:

• Color

• Shape

• Size

At night, lookouts must identify the color of all lights. This is the specificreason why all boat crew members must have normal color vision.

C.6. Relativebearing

Lookouts make reports using relative bearings only. This means thatthe bearings are measured with reference to the vessel’s heading, or to thefore and aft line of the boat’s keel. These bearings run clockwise fromzero degrees (000o) or dead ahead, through one-eight-zero degrees (180o)or dead astern, around to three-six-zero degrees (360o) or dead aheadagain.

The following steps are important in reporting relative bearings:

Step Procedure1 Study the diagram on major reference points of relative

bearings. Picture in your mind the complete circle of relativebearings around your boat in 10 degree increments (See Figure1-1).

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Relative BearingsFigure 1-1

2 Bearings are always reported in three digits and distinctlyspoken digit by digit. To ensure one number is not mistaken foranother, the following pronunciation is required.

Numeral Spoken as Numeral Spoken as

0 ........... ZERO 5 .......FI-YIV1 ............ WUN 6 ............ SIX2 ............. TOO 7 ......SEVEN3 ..THUH-REE 8 ...........ATE4 ...... FO-WER 9 .......NINER

3 The following are examples of how to report bearings:

Bearing Reported as 000o.................ZERO ZERO ZERO 010o.................ZERO WUN ZERO 045o.................ZERO FO-WER FI-YIV 090o.................ZERO NINER ZERO 135o.................WUN THUH-REE FI-YIV 180o.................WUN ATE ZERO

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225o.................TOO TOO FI-YIV 260o.................TOO SIX ZERO 270o.................TOO SEVEN ZERO 315o.................THUH-REE ONE FI-YIV

C.7. Positionangle

Objects in the sky are located by their relative bearing and positionangle. The position angle of an aircraft is its height in degrees above thehorizon as seen from the boat. The horizon is 0o and directly overhead is90o. The position angle can never be more than 90o. Position angles arereported in one or two digits and the word "Position Angle" is alwaysspoken before the numerals (See Figure 1-2).

Position AnglesFigure 1-2

C.8. Distance Report distances in yards. Knowing the distance to the horizon, land, orother reference point, will help estimate distance. By dividing thedistance from you to your reference point, you can estimate the distanceto another object. Ranges in yards are reported digit by digit, exceptwhen reporting yards in hundreds or thousands which are spoken as listedbelow.

Number of Yards Spoken as50 FI-YIV ZERO500 FI-YIV HUNDRED5000 FI-YIV THOUSAND

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C.9. Makingreports

When making reports, the lookout names or describes the object sighted,the direction (in relative degrees) and the range to the object (in yards).Give reports in the following format:

• Object name or description

• Bearing

• Range

For example:

Discolored water on a bearing of 340o relative to the bow of the boatand at a distance of 2,000 yards.

REPORTED AS: "Discolored water Bearing THUH-REE FO-WERZERO, Range TOO THOUSAND".

An aircraft bearing 280o relative to the bow of the ship, 30o above thehorizon, and at a distance of 9,000 yards.

REPORTED AS: "Aircraft TOO ATE ZERO, Position AngleTHUH-REE ZERO, Range NINER THOUSAND".

C.10. Scanning The lookout's method of eye search is called scanning. Scanning is astep-by-step method of visually searching for objects. Good scanningtechniques will ensure that objects are not missed. Scanning also reduceseye fatigue. Development of a systematic scanning technique isimportant. There are two common scanning methods:

• Left to right and back again

• Top to bottom and bottom to top

In either case, move your eyes in increments. This creates overlaps inyour field of vision and fewer objects will be missed.

Step Procedure1 When looking for an object, scan the sky, sea, and horizon

slowly and regularly. Scan from left to right and back againor from top to bottom and bottom to top.

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NOTE $$2 When scanning, do not look directly at the horizon; look

above it. Move your head from side to side and keep youreyes fixed. This will give any stationary objects in your fieldof vision the appearance of moving and make them easier tosee.

One technique is to scan in small steps of about 10 degreesand have them slightly overlap as you move across your fieldof view.

3 Fatigue, boredom, and environmental conditions affectscanning. For example, after prolonged scanning, with littleor no contrast, your eyes develop a tendency to focus shortof where you think you are looking. To prevent this,periodically focus on a close object such as whitecaps or thebow of the boat.

C.10.a. Nightscanning

When binoculars are used for night scanning, hold them straight forwardand shift your line of sight in a circular path around the inside of thebinocular field. When you think you see an object, look all around it, notat it. The chances are it will appear in dim outline. Using binoculars atnight on a stable platform increases your range of vision significantly,however, objects will not appear in clear detail.

C.10.b. Fogscanning

Fog lookouts scan slowly and rely on their ears. The best position for afog lookout is where sight and hearing is not interfered by radios,conversation, or other distractions. Usually at the bow is best, ifconditions allow.

For more details onscanning, refer tothe SearchOperations Chapterof the NationalSearch and RescueManual,COMDTINSTM16120.5 (series).

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Night Lookout Watch

C.11. General Although the duties for day and night lookout watches are the same,safety and caution during night watches are especially important. Youreyes respond much more slowly at night and pick up moving objects morereadily than fixed objects. It takes about 30 minutes for your eyes tobecome accustomed to the limited light available at night.

C.12. Guidelines The guidelines for lookout watches also apply for night lookout watches.

NOTE $$

C.13. Darkadaptation

NOTE $$

Dark adaptation is the improvement of vision in dim light. It is verydifficult to see colors at night. Most objects are seen in various shades ofgray. Although dark adaptation requires at least 30 minutes, a bright lightwill destroy night vision in a fraction of a second. In this brief period, theeyes readjust themselves to daylight conditions and the process of darkadaptation must begin all over again.

C.14. Scanning Scan the sky, sea, and horizon slowly and regularly when looking for anobject. Scan from left to right and back again or from top to bottom andfrom bottom to top.

Night vision is based on your eyes receiving and interpreting a different type oflight than exists during daylight.

Avoid looking atbright lights duringnight-timeoperations. When alight must be used,use a red light.

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Helm Watch

C.15. General The helm watch or helmsman is responsible for the following:

• Safely steering the boat

• Maintaining a course

• Carrying out all helm commands given by the coxswain

The helm watch can be carried out by the coxswain or by any designatedcrew member. Every crewman should learn to steer and control the boat.They must learn to use both the primary steering system and, whenappropriate, the emergency steering system, to ensure safe operations ofthe boat under normal and abnormal conditions.

C.16. Guidelines When a boat uses a helmsman, there are several guidelines for the helmwatch:

• Check with the coxswain for any special instructions and for thecourse you will steer.

• Repeat all commands given by the coxswain.

• Execute all commands given by the coxswain.

• Maintain a given course within 5o.

• Remain at the helm until properly relieved.

• Execute maneuvers only when expressly ordered, however, minorchanges in heading to avoid debris, which could damage propelleror rudders, are essential.

• Operate the emergency tiller (if equipped) during loss of steering.

• Properly inform relief of all pertinent information.

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Towing Watch

C.17. General A towing watch is normally performed aft on the boat. The primary dutyof the towing watch is to keep the towline and the boat being towedunder constant observation. (For more information on towingprocedures, see Chapter 17 - Towing.)

C.18. Guidelines The guidelines for standing this watch are as follows:

• Observe how the tow is riding, e.g., in step, listing, or veering.

• Report any unusual conditions to the coxswain.

• Ensure chafing gear is riding in place.

• Adjust the scope of the towline upon command of the coxswain.

• Report any equipment failure or problems observed to thecoxswain immediately.

• Keep deck space area clear of unnecessary gear and people.

• Stay clear of the immediate area around the towline due topossible line snap back.

• Know when and how to do an emergency breakaway.

C.19. Observeddanger

The towing watch must be aware of and report any signs of danger.Many of the signs of danger include:

• Yawing - disabled boat veers from one side to the other whichmay cause one or both boats to capsize.

• List increasing on towed boat.

• In Step - the proper distance between the towed boat and thetowing boat to maintain control and prevent breaking the tow line.

• Towed boat taking on water.

• Deck hardware failure due to stress, no backing plates, etc.

• Towline about to part due to stress, chafing, or other damage.

• Towed boat overtaking your boat due to sudden reduction inspeed.

• Positioning of towed boat’s crew.

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C.20. Maintainingwatch

Maintain a tow watch until the disabled boat is moored or until relieved.When relieved, make sure that all important information is passed to therelief (i.e., problems with chafing gear, towed boat yaws, etc.).

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Anchor Watch

C.21. General When the boat is anchored, an anchor watch is set. The person on watchmust ensure that the anchor line does not chafe and that the anchor doesnot drag. The individual on watch also looks for other vessels in the area.Even when the boat is anchored, there is the possibility that it can be hitby another boat.

C.22. Guidelines Use the following guidelines when standing anchor watch:

• Check the strain on the anchor line frequently.

• Check that the anchor line is not chafing.

• Confirm the position of the boat at least every 15 minutes, or atshorter intervals as directed by the coxswain.

• Report bearing or range (distance) changes to the coxswainimmediately.

• Report approaching vessels to the coxswain immediately.

• Report major changes in wind velocity or direction.

• Check for current or tidal changes.

• Report any unusual conditions.

C.23. Check forchafing

Once the anchor is set, apply chafing gear to the anchor line. It is the jobof the anchor watch to ensure chafing gear stays in place and the anchorline does not chafe through.

C.24. Check fordragging

There are two methods to determine if your anchor is dragging.

• Check for tension on the anchor line

• Check the boat's position

If the anchor is dragging over the bottom, you can sometimes feelvibration in the line. Periodically check your position by taking anavigational fix. Always use both methods.

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C.25. Check yourposition

It is important to routinely check your position to ensure you are notdrifting or dragging anchor:

• Take compass bearings to three separate objects spread at least45o apart. Any bearing changes may indicate that you arebeginning to drift.

• On a boat equipped with radar, determine the distance (range) tothree points of land on your radar screen. Any change in theranges may indicate anchor drag.

• On a Loran or GPS equipped boat, mark your position with yourequipment. Periodically check your LAT/LONG readout. Anychange would show your position is changing.

• Make a note of each time you check your bearings or ranges.Also note your position and the depth of water regularly. A smallnote pad is acceptable for this purpose. If the water depth orposition changes, the anchor may be dragging.

As the wind or water current changes direction, your boat will swingabout its anchor. This is a swing circle centered around the position ofthe anchor, with a radius equal to the boat’s length plus the horizontalcomponent of the length of anchor line in use; simply stated horizontalcomponent + boat length = radius of swing circle at its greatestlength. (The horizontal component decreases as the water depthincreases.) Ensure your swing circle is clear of other vessels andunderwater obstructions. When checking your position, it should fallinside the swing circle.

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Appendix 1-APre-Underway Checklist

______________ 1. Brief all crew members on the mission, preferably before gettingunderway, or as soon as possible afterwards. The briefing should becomplete. State:

________ a. Purpose of mission

________ b. Special circ*mstances

________ c. Working radio frequency for the mission

________ d. Plan of action upon arrival at destination

________ e. Speed and course to be steered to destination

________ f. Weather and sea conditions

______________ 2. Ensure that all doors and hatches are secured. (Watertight integrity)

Note:In an enclosed pilot house, at least one door or window to the weatherdecks should normally be opened to facilitate hearing sound signals fromapproaching vessels and aids to navigation.

______________ 3. Ensure that all loose gear is safely tied down or stowed.

______________ 4. Ensure that all gear necessary to perform the mission is on board. Thisincludes any supplemental equipment not normally on the boat but neededfor the specific mission.

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______________ 5. Ensure crew members wear personal protective equipment required forthe environment (e.g., PFDs, helmets, anti-exposure coveralls, or dry suitswith PFDs). Commandant policy requires PFDs to be worn at all timeswhen underway. On Coast Guard boats, the crew is also required to wearthe boat crew signal kit at all times.

______________ 6. The boat engineer must check the boat's mechanical and electrical systemsand make reports to the coxswain concerning the status and readiness ofall the following:

________ a. Fuel levels

________ b. Oil levels for engines and marine (reduction) gears

________ c. Cooling water level

________ d. Hydraulic steering oil

________ e. Engine/marine (reduction) gear psi/temperature gauges

________ f. Electrical systems energized

________ g. Navigational lights (e.g., night, reduced visibility)

________ h. Open sea suction

________ i. Shore tie disconnected

________ j. Overboard discharge

______________ 7. Test the boat's electronic equipment and report the status to thecoxswain:

________ a. Radios

________ b. Depth sounder

________ c. Radar

________ d. All navigational systems

________ e. Chart and compass light

______________ 8. Test the engine controls, both FORWARD and REVERSE. Note thereaction time in each direction.

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______________ 9. Cast off all lines, stow the lines, and bring on board any fenders.

_____________ 10. Notify the unit of the time underway and number of crew members onboard. Also report any personnel or boat discrepancies at this time.

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Appendix 1-BNormal Cruising Checklist (Coxswain)

______________ 1. Always KEEP ALERT and position lookouts appropriately for currentconditions.

Note:Lookouts are required by the International Regulations for PreventingCollisions at Sea (COLREGS). Under all circ*mstances, keep alert forother vessels, aids to navigation, and hazards including: breakers, rocks,piping, “dead heads”, and fishing nets.

______________ 2. When proceeding normally with good visibility and your boat is NOTengaged in an active search, keep your crew in a protected location.Designate crew members to act as a lookout.

______________ 3. Always know the whereabouts of your crew.

______________ 4. Observe aids to navigation for all of the following:

________ a. Position

________ b. Condition

________ c. Operation

______________ 5. Conduct drills and training frequently, including all of the following:

________ a. Boat handling

________ b. Anchoring

________ c. Navigation Rules (Inland & International)

________ d. Navigation

________ e. Man overboard

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________ f. Emergency steering

________ g. Search patterns

________ h. Firefighting on board

________ i. Helicopter operations (if helicopter is available)

______________ 6. Frequently observe the depth finder and compare the water depthreported to that shown on the chart for your location.

______________ 7. Always be on the alert for vessels or people that may be in distress.

______________ 8. Make OPS (operations and position) reports to the parent unit as requiredby local directives and procedures.

______________ 9. When you are operating in any conditions where your visibility is reducedfor any reason, EXTRA PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN:

________ a. Position lookouts appropriately and explain their duties.

________ b. Keep alert for all vessels and sound signals.

Note:

The aft lookout should be alert for overtaking vessels and for signalsmissed by the forward lookout.

________ c. Watch for aids to navigation which do not have audible sound devices.

________ d. Lay out charts with the main course, time, and speed plotted on them.

________ e. Begin plotting navigational fixes, record times, and positions regularly.

________ f. Sound appropriate signals.

________ g. Display appropriate navigational lights.

________ h. Maintain a speed that will enable you to take proper action to avoid a collision and stop within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circ*mstances and conditions (that is, do not go too fast).

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Appendix 1-CAuxiliary Pre-Underway Checklist

Overview Prior to getting underway conduct a pre-underway check-off of yourfacility. Check for proper condition, operation, and stowage of requiredequipment. Routine mechanical, electrical, and engine checks must also bedone. Ensure all crew members are aware of emergency procedures, andthe location and use of emergency equipment. Inform the OperationalCommander of the number of persons onboard and their names prior togetting underway. Prepare a pre-underway check-off sheet for yourspecific facility. Below is a sample pre-underway checklist.

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Date:________________________

Facility Name: _____________________________________________

Facility Number: _______________________

______________ 1. Verified appropriate Coast Guard patrol orders have been issued.

______________ 2. Located and checked the proper condition, operation, and stowage of thefollowing equipment:

________ a. Personal floatation devices (PFDs)

________ b. Fire extinguishers

________ c. Visual distress signals

________ d. Anchors and anchor lines

________ e. Dewatering device

________ f. Watch or clock

________ g. Boarding ladder (or other means of boarding)

________ h. Kicker skiff hook (if required)

________ i. Binoculars

________ j. Blanket

________ k. Fenders

________ l. Towline

________ m. Bridle

________ n. Heaving lines

________ o. Mooring lines

________ p. Searchlight

________ q. Spare navigation lightbulbs

________ r. Boat hook

________ s. Navigation lights

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________ t. Lead line or sounding pole

________ u. Charts, navigation plotting instruments

________ v. Tools and spare parts

________ w. First aid kit

________ x. Sound producing device

________ y. Current Rules of the Road publication on board, if applicable.

______________ 3. Completed the required mechanical, electrical, and engine checks listedbelow.

________ a. Oil level (if applicable)

________ b. Water level (if applicable)

________ c. Reduction gear oil level (if applicable)

________ d. Fuel system, especially fuel shut-off valves

________ e. Ventilation system (if applicable)

______________ 4. Conducted crew briefing:

________ a. Purpose of mission

________ b. Any special circ*mstances concerning the mission

________ c. Working radio frequency to be used for the mission

________ d. Expected weather and sea conditions

________ e. Crew members in proper uniform and properequipment

________ f. Inform Operational Commander of the number andnames of persons onboard

________ g. Confirm the mission is within the facility’s operationalstandard.

______________ 5. Secured all openings.

______________ 6. Secured boat for sea (no loose gear).

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______________ 7. Displayed proper flags and signboards.

______________ 8. Opened sea suction.

______________ 9. Ventilated the engine compartment before starting engine/s.

_____________ 10. Started the engine/s.

________ a. Energized the electrical and electronic systems (bilgepump, etc.)

________ b. Engine/marine gear pressures and temperaturessatisfactory (if equipped)

____________ 11. Disconnected shore line.

____________ 12. Tested the following electronic equipment (if equipped).

________ a. VHF - FM radio

________ b. Loud hailer

________ c. Depth finder

________ d. Loran C

________ e. Radar

________ f. GPS

____________ 13. Tested engine controls in forward and reverse with lines still attached tothe dock; noted the reaction times for both directions.

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Chapter 2: Patrols

Overview

Introduction Shore units will get their boats underway to conduct a variety of patrols.The intent of this chapter is to discuss types of boat patrol and theirrespective procedures. Patrols may have different titles for the same typeof task or one general title to cover many tasks. Examples include safety,familiarization, training, harbor, and regatta patrols. In all cases, the crewis underway at the direction of the operational commander. The patrolmay be in response to a known problem or meant as a method ofprevention or early detection.

In this chapter This chapter is divided into six sections.

Section Title See PageA Safety Patrols 2-3B Regatta Patrols and Marine Parades 2-9C Aids to Navigation Patrols 2-23D Chart Updating Patrols 2-25E Disaster Patrols 2-27F Port Security and Maritime Pollution 2-29

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Section A. Safety Patrols

Overview

Introduction Safety patrols directly support the Coast Guard’s maritime safetyresponsibilities. For the Auxiliary, the safety patrol supports the searchand rescue (SAR) mission specifically to locate and help persons andboats in distress. While a routine safety patrol is being conducted, it iscommon practice to perform other missions, such as checking aids tonavigation (ATON) or pollution levels. Auxiliary safety patrols work for aCoast Guard operational commander.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Title See PageBenefits of Safety Patrols 2-4Auxiliary Safety Patrol Boat Duties 2-5

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Benefits of Safety Patrols

A.1. General

NOTE $$

Safety patrols provide important benefits for the boat crew, Coast Guard,and the public. These benefits include:

• Practice for the crew and familiarization with their area ofresponsibility (AOR).

• Public seeing the Coast Guard in action.

• Public awareness that distress assistance is available.

• Increased opportunity for the boating public to obtain boatingsafety information, sea condition reports, or navigation hazardnotices.

• Information for the federal, state, and local agencies responsiblefor updating navigation aids and charts.

• Detection of unreported events, including SAR and pollution.

Patrols scheduledbefore sundown, oron receipt of asevere stormwarning are to helpboaters to get to asecure harbor. Thisis considered“Preventive SAR”.

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Auxiliary Safety Patrol Boat Duties

A.2. General A boat on patrol should always be ready to answer distress or assistancecalls expediently, even when ordered to stand by at a pier. To helpboaters, many boat crews carry additional equipment, perhaps an extrabattery and a good array of tools onboard. The district commander mayrequire boats to carry equipment to meet the unique needs of the district.

A.3. Coxswain’sresponsibility

Coxswains should know and follow the local guidance and modificationsto the primary directives for Coast Guard policy and procedures. Thisinformation comes from the Coast Guard group commander, Director ofAuxiliary, or order-issuing authority in response to the local needs orchanging conditions. Before getting underway, the coxswain should:

• Know the patrol area and review factors such as, tidal action,weather patterns, fishing areas, and navigational aids.

• Verify that fuel tanks are full and all equipment is checked andoperating properly.

• Ensure that the required crew is aboard in the correct uniform andproperly certified.

• Verify that at least one other crew member is qualified tocommand the boat in case the coxswain needs to seek relief.

• Ensure all crew members are physically capable of performingmission.

• Provide a thorough briefing on the boat, its equipment, and itsoperation. Specifically address possible hazards, risk awarenessand situation awareness.

• Once satisfied, go to the assigned patrol sector and notify theoperational commander of your arrival or departure, the numberand names of persons on board, and verify that conditions arewithin the facility’s operational standards.

A.4. Reportingresponsibility

Proper reports keep boaters and the Coast Guard informed about boatpatrols and local boating conditions. Whether it is a routine positionreport, a sea condition report, or a log entry, all reports should beaccurate.

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A.4.a. Operationalstatus reports

While underway, maintain communications with the your unit if youroperating within radio range. Report the your boat’s location andoperational status (operations and position reports) to the cognizant atregular intervals; normally, every 30 to 60 minutes.

A.4.b. Patrol logs Keep a log of significant patrol activities. The narrative of each eventshould be a brief accurate description of situations, procedures, actions,and activities. The log will help back up reports sent to the Coast Guardand answer any inquiries.

A.4.c. Seacondition reports

NOTE $$

Report sea conditions to the public by arranging a broadcast programwith a local radio station. The patrol boat’s report will normally be tapedso that it can be replayed several times during the day. This providesreports of wind and wave conditions in simple terms to the boating public.Remember that only actual conditions are described; weather forecastingis to be left to professional meteorologists.

A.5. Patrolling Make a preliminary sweep of the area to establish familiarity with theprevailing conditions, potential trouble areas, and to announce to localboaters that your crew is on patrol. Keep your speed down whilepatrolling to enable the crew to keep a sharp lookout in all directions, andto conserve fuel.

A.6. Continuingpatrol duringheavy weather

The patrol boat should not be the first to leave an area when adverseconditions develop. While a coxswain should never jeopardize the boatcrew, during heavy weather it is important that a patrol continue as longas possible. In case of a sudden storm, many pleasure boats will probablybe in need of some type of assistance.

Ensure thatarrangements withthe radio station tobroadcast seacondition reports donot infer anyendorsem*nt, by theCoast Guard orAuxiliary, of anyproducts or services.

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A.7. Assistance

NOTE $$

While on patrol, boat crews will encounter many types of assistancesituations. Always approach them with caution, considering the differentpolicies and procedures concerning assistance, including:

• Coast Guard Addendum to the National SAR Manual,

• Maritime SAR Assistance Policy,

• general salvage policy,

• risk assessment processes,

• proper operations to help the boat, and

• other concerns, such as the need for additional boats to help.

A.8. Assistingother patrols

When a safety patrol boat in an adjoining area is assigned an assistancemission, boats in the surrounding areas should move to the line betweenthe two sectors. This allows them to answer a call in either of the sectors.Precise direction should be obtained from the operational commander.

A.9. Permission tosecure

NOTE $$

When it is time to end the patrol, notify the appropriate Coast Guard unitand request permission to secure. A final sweep normally will be madethrough the patrol area before securing.

Do not hesitate tocall for additionalhelp as necessarywhen providingassistance.

A patrol boat that is damaged or has a crew member injured while on officialpatrol must contact the Coast Guard operational commander as soon as possible,and follow the prescribed procedures for the situation.

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Section B. Regatta Patrols and Marine Parades

Overview

Introduction A regatta or marine parade is an organized water event of limited durationthat is conducted according to a prearranged schedule. Regattas involveboth participant and spectator boats in activities such as, racing, waterskiing, demonstrations, and similar grouped or classed marine skills andequipment. The safety of the participant boats is the responsibility of thesponsoring organization, unless they ask for Coast Guard assistance. Thesafety of the spectator boats is a Coast Guard responsibility, but should beverified with the event sponsors. The sponsor of the marine event isresponsible for applying for approval of the event. The application mustbe submitted to the proper Coast Guard or civil authority at least 30 daysprior to the event. For new or major marine events the application shouldbe submitted well in advance (90-120 days).

In this section This section contains the following information:

Title See PagePatrolling Regattas 2-10Patrol Boat Assignments 2-13Patrolling the Various Regattas 2-16Marine Parades 2-21

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Patrolling Regattas

B.1. General

NOTE $$

Regattas usually take place over a closed course where patrol sectors areestablished alongside and at each end of the course. The primary functionsof a regatta patrol are to control the spectator boats and transient craft fortheir protection, and to ensure safety hazards do not enter into the eventarea.

B.2. Patrolcommanderselection

The district commander, Captain of the Port (COTP), or Coast Guardgroup commander will designate the Patrol Commander (PATCOM) for aregatta or marine event. The PATCOM is normally a Coast Guardcommissioned officer, Warrant officer, or an appropriate Auxiliarist.

NOTE $$

B.3. Designatingan auxiliary boatcommander

When a regatta or marine event is under the control of a Coast GuardPATCOM and the Auxiliary is also assisting, an Auxiliary boatcommander (AUXCOM) will be designated. AUXCOM will work closelywith the PATCOM to coordinate the Auxiliary boats and personnel, act asliaison in the preparation, conduct, and secure the event. (AUXCOM isalso that person’s radio call sign during the event.)

The primary responsibility to protect participants from the hazards of the event,including other participants, rests with the sponsoring organization.

Written instructions will describe the authority of the Auxiliarist to act asPATCOM. These instructions include: Patrol requirements; Pre-brief to allparticipants - duties and responsibilities; Establish communication frequencies andnetworks; and Instructions for completing after patrol reports. The Auxiliary mustcoordinate and cooperate with any law enforcement agency that might be onscene.

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B.4. Establishingsectors

The length, size and shape of the course depend upon the type of regatta.To maintain operational control, regattas event courses are usually dividedinto sectors. (See Figure 2-1.) All sectors should be as small as isreasonable to allow patrols to regulate traffic and keep obstructions orboats from the course. Small sectors may limit mobility. Large sectors aretoo difficult for patrol boats to cover it effectively, and spectator boatsmight get too close to the course before a patrol boat can issue a warning.Patrol boats should move only within their assigned sectors. Thefollowing steps should help the PATCOM to establish and assign sectors.

Step Action

1 Divide large patrol areas into at least five sectors, one to threesectors along each outer side, and at least two at each end.

2 Operate all boats from the same charts.

3 Mark the charts with the patrol sectors.

4 Assign each patrol boat to a patrol sector.

5 Ensure that each boat reports its location and movements.

6 Establish more sectors as needed (e.g., change in course size ormore spectator boats than expected).

B.5. The gridsystem

The grid system is an effective method of organizing patrol areaoperations. When using the grid system, transparent grid overlays areessential. All grids must be identical in size and identification(Figure 2-1). The benefits of using grids are:

• PATCOM and the patrol boat captains can read grid coordinatesexactly.

• Coxswains can request assistance, by giving a location, using thegrid on the chart.

• PATCOM can also assign additional patrol boats to the position.

• Location of a distress can be easily shown.

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Typical Patrol Assignments and SectorsFigure 2-1

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Patrol Boat Assignments

B.6. General After completing all pre-race activities, the PATCOM dispatches theboats to their patrol positions. En route and within its sector, each patrolboat should examine the course for objects or debris that could affectparticipant, spectator, or patrol boat safety. This is especially important inevents involving high-speed racing craft. Items such as a partiallysubmerged soft drink container can cause a disaster if struck by a raceboat at high speeds.

B.7. Using patrolboats marker andscreen boats

Patrol boats on regatta patrol may be used two ways, either as markerboats or screen boats.

B.7.a. Markerboats

Position marker boats at designated places, either stationary or mobile, tomark limits of restricted areas. The event sponsor must provide markerboats to locate turning points for the regatta participants.

B.7.b. Screen boats Use screen vessels as either moving or stationary screens. These boatsmaneuver in formation around the perimeter of the race course to bebetween the participants and the spectators. A stationary screen boat actsin the same manner as the marker boat.

NOTE $$

B.8. Boat ensigndisplay

Boats on regatta patrol must display the proper identification signs, and allcrew members must be in proper uniform. If an active duty Coast GuardPATCOM rides on an Auxiliary boat, remove the Auxiliary ensigntemporarily, and display the Coast Guard ensign along with the specialCoast Guard patrol signs.

Wakes could create hazards to boats in events. Patrol and spectator boats’speed must be kept to a minimum. In an emergency, patrol boats canincrease their speed.

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B.9. Patrol boat Each patrol boat has the responsibility to maintain a sharp lookout. Patrolobservers should not become so engrossed in a racing event that theyignore the movement of the participants and the spectators within theirsector.

B.10. Closing asection

Under certain conditions it is necessary for the Coast Guard to close asection of the course or the area in which the event is being held. It is aresponsibility of the patrol boats to constantly be present in these areas. Ifthere are not enough patrol boats, use floats or log booms. Warnspectators so they will not strike these objects.

B.11. Spectatorboat anchoring

Ensure that all spectator boats anchor only in designated areas. All boatsmust anchor so that they do not swing into restricted zones. It isnecessary to be alert for weather changes, a wind shift, or a currentcondition that might cause anchored boats to swing into the restrictedzones.

B.12. Spectatorboats

NOTE $$

Spectator boat areas should be patrolled to ensure all boats are safelyclear of the course or safety zone. Advise each spectator boat that is notin a proper position to move to a safe position. Be courteous. In case offailure to comply with a request, report all facts regarding thecirc*mstances to the PATCOM for action.

B.13. Casualtyassistance

Patrol boats must advise the PATCOM of all problems in case the eventneeds to be stopped or the course closed temporarily. No patrol boat willleave its sector unless ordered to do so by the PATCOM. Take actiononly on direction from the PATCOM. This is to maintain order andefficiency of the operation. The following table summarizes possibleemergency situations and the initial actions to take:

The Auxiliary doesnot have any lawenforcementauthority. Use thewords “please” and“thank you,” andconvey all message ina courteous tone ofvoice.

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If... Then...

you observe a casualty advise the PATCOM of all details, who willdirect the proper patrol boat to the scene. If aparticipant boat is the casualty, the event’ssponsor may be the only boat to respond.

an accident occurs withinyour patrol boat’s sector

assist immediately. If no arrangement hasbeen made with the event sponsors, “standby, observe” but defer all action to the(sponsor) committee boats designated for thatpurpose.

a boat is assigned to helpoutside its sector

it must report to the PATCOM uponcompletion of the assistance.

there is an emergency rescue the people first before any attempt ismade to salvage a boat. The protection oflives and personal safety are more importantthan the saving of property.

B.14. Securing aregatta patrol

Do not secure a regatta patrol operation until the course area is clear. ThePATCOM will designate one patrol boat or more, if required, to make afinal sweep of the area. Use the sweep to see that the course is in thecondition it was in before the regatta. Any debris or markers that have notbeen picked up should be reported to the PATCOM. They will relay thisinformation to the sponsoring organization that has the responsibility forpolicing the area.

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Patrolling the Various Regattas

B.15. General Knowing the sponsor rules, the boats involved and patrol responsibilitieswill ensure the safety or your crew, participant boats and spectators. Thistable introduces the responsibilities of the sponsor and patrol boats duringpowerboat, sailing, rowing, and the other various regattas.

Patrolling Regattas

SponsorOrganizationResponsibility

Any type of regatta is usually sponsored by an organization. Powerboats mayhave a corporate sponsor; sailboats, are sponsored by yachting clubs orassociations; and rowing regattas are usually sanctioned by a prep school orcollegiate organization. The sponsors have rules that the participants of a racemust follow. At times, the sponsors provide especially trained crews to assistduring emergencies.

Patrol Boat

Responsibility

Only assist a participant or spectator boat if agreed upon or requested by thesponsor and approved by the Patrol Commander. Know the sponsor’s rules. Beaware of the construction, use, and particulars of the boats used in the regatta.During an emergency with either the participant or spectator boats, an abruptaction by an inexperienced boat crew may cause a participant’s disqualification.

NOTE $$ PATCOM should keep close liaison with regatta sponsor officials before, during,and after the regatta event.

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Regattas Powerboat Sailing Rowing (crew racing)

Course Layout Large rectangle or long ovalcourse involving the escapevalve idea, diagonally oppositeat each end, enabling race boatsto leave the course. (Figure 2-1).

Nearly all courses aretriangular, allowing foruse of the basic sailingpositions. Course mustbe laid out to conformwith the prevailingwind direction.(Figure 2-2).

The races are held on astraight course withmarker craft on eitherside and a moving screenbehind to preventspectator boats frominterfering.

OperationSectors

Use boats as moving orstationary screens along sidesof the course. Maintain a line,behind which spectator boatsstay.

The ends of the course requiremoving screens if it is longerthan it is wide, to keepspectators from entering thecourse.

Course type andmaneuvering calls for,a combination ofmarker, stationaryboats, and movingscreen boats to stoppassing boats fromentering the course.Moving screen patrolmove with the regatta.(Figure 2-3).

Use stationary positionsand do not leave thesepositions unlessassistance is required.(Figure 2-4).

ParticipantBoatParticulars

Fragile construction.

Sensitive to wakes.

Possibility of capsizing.

Identifying capsizedboats difficult becauseof lack of noise andsailboats closelygrouped.

The craft are very light,have a very lowfreeboard and requirequiet water.

HandlingParticipantBoatEmergencies

Emergencies on the courseshould be left to the sponsorrescue craft, unless asked.

Ask the skipper ifassistance is wanted,then allow him to directthe operation.

Check with eventsponsors, assume it isokay to assistparticipants, they usuallydo not wear lifepreservers.

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Regattas Powerboat Sailing Rowing (crew racing)

Spectator Boats Sponsors and patrols shareresponsibility for the safety ofspectator boats.

Keep spectator boat wakessmall.

Sponsors and patrolsshare responsibility forthe safety of spectatorboats.

Tactfully attempt tokeep spectator boatsfrom entering thecourse or goingbetween the sailboats.This happens when aspectator or transientboat is unaware of anongoing race, or theypresume they mayproceed followingnavigation rules.

Sponsors and patrolsshare responsibility forthe safety of spectatorboats.

Ensure that all spectatorboats are in place wellbefore the start of therace so that wake-drivenwave action will subside.

Prevent spectator boatsfrom entering the course.

OtherResponsibilities

Move about looking out fordebris that may endangerparticipant or spectator boats.

Be alert to course legsbeing moved or rotated,and advise patrol boats.

Keep wakes down.

In Addition Special communicationproblems may arise whenoperating near loud engines,and may require traffic controlsigns, headphones, etc.

Racing sailboats takeadvantage of windconditions and aretacking back and forthalong the course. Trynot to place patrolboats in the infield,they could be in theway. Instead, set patrolboats downwind andastern of theparticipating boats.

Discuss, assisting,sailboat righting, andtowing at the pre-racebriefing.

Patrol boats shouldminimize the use ofhailing equipmentwhenever the rowers arenearby to eliminateinterference with theircadence.

Other types of rowingregattas feature dories,lifeboats, whaleboats,canoes, and evenbathtubs. Patrol theseregattas in the samemanner as crew races.

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Typical Sailboat Regatta CourseFigure 2-2

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Typical Sailboat Regatta PatrolFigure 2-3

Typical Rowing Regatta PatrolFigure 2-4

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Marine Parades

B.16. General The term “marine parade” denotes a boat or a group of boats participatingin a parade. Depending upon the nature of the event, a patrol boat willmaintain the grouping or allow it to vary. The event is usually moving,and does not ordinarily retrace its path, although the parade may end at itsstarting point.

A patrol commander (PATCOM) will normally be assigned. PATCOMand patrol boat duties typically include:

• Selecting a vantage point for the PATCOM with maximumvisibility of the event; usually a moving facility.

• Maintaining communications between the PATCOM and themarine parade marshal or committee.

• Maintaining parade configuration per established routes and times.

• Assigning patrol boats to:

– Stationary sectors along the parade course containingspectator boats that are to remain within a prescribed limit.

– Move sectors of patrol boats ahead, behind, and alongside theparticipating boats.

– Sectors between the welcomed boat and the movingwelcoming fleet, for such events.

– Prevent transient boats for disrupting the parade.

– Render assistance to life threatening situations and endangeredproperty.

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Section C. Aids to Navigation Patrols

C.1. General Coast Guard Regulations state that coxswains shall make every effort toobserve and report any aid to navigation (ATON) that is out of order oroff station. (The boat crew assists by keeping a sharp eye out fordiscrepancies.) This is usually done underway while on routine operations.However, Coast Guard resources may be directed to get underwayspecifically to check for ATON discrepancies. In addition to patrolling,local boat resources may be used to assist the ATON units that maintainand service these aids.

C.2. ReportingATONdiscrepancies

Report any aids that are damaged, off station, or otherwise not servingtheir intended purpose (i.e., not watching properly) to the Coast Guardunit that you are patrolling for. Clearly identify the aid, its location, andthe discrepancy. The chart, Light List, or Local Notice to Mariners shouldbe used to verify the correct ATON information.

The Auxiliary has established procedures for their reporting of ATONdiscrepancies. The following criteria is used to select the method ofreporting a discrepancy:

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Criticality Report by Criteria

Critical Radio Failure to report by the most expeditious meansmay result in loss of life and/or damage to a boat.

Examples:

• Aid iced and light is obscured.• Light signal failure.• Light signal showing improper characteristic.• Sinking or submerged buoy.• Aid off station/adrift/missing.• Radiobeacon off the air (improper

characteristic).

Urgent Telephone Failure to report will result in no danger of loss oflife or boat damage. However, the discrepancymay contribute to the stranding of a boat.

Examples:

• Missing daymarks.• Sound signal failure.• Radiobeacon timing sequence incorrect.

Routine U. S. Mail Failure to report will result in a very lowlikelihood of a grounding or stranding, butcorrective maintenance is necessary.

Examples:

• Signal obscured (by foliage or other objects).• Faded daymark.• Leaning structure.• Bird’s nest.• Improper day markings.• Retroreflective material missing or

inadequate.• Numbers missing.

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Section D. Chart Updating Patrols

D.1. Agreementwith NOAA

The Auxiliary has a formal agreement with the National Ocean Service(NOAA-NOS), an agency under the Department of Commerce. Theagreement provides for liaison and cooperation to provide accurate andup-to-date chart information to the boating public.

The agreement between NOAA-NOS and the Auxiliary authorizes andencourages the scheduling of safety patrols to verify the accuracy ofpublished navigation charts. These patrols, called Chart Updating Patrols,are not restricted solely to areas covered by NOAA-NOS charts. Otherfederal and state agencies also publish charts or maps used by the boater.Chart updating patrols on local, state, and federal waters covered by thesecharts are also authorized.

D.2. Discrepancies Any discrepancies found should be reported on the appropriate chartupdating form.

Members of the Auxiliary need not be performing on a scheduled patrolto notice and report discrepancies. Alert coxswains should alwayscompare chart information with the actual conditions and reportdifferences. Chart updating patrols should always be alert to the actionsand activities of other boaters and be ready to render assistance.

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Section E. Disaster Patrols

E.1. General District or unit Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) typically providefor patrolling in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. This type ofpatrol, sometimes called a Disaster Patrol, deals with emergencies eitherimminent, in progress, or the result of events such as hurricanes, storms,waterfront explosions, fires, or floods.

E.2. Role of boatcrew

Boat crew may be used to transmit warnings to waterfront and isolatedareas. They can also transport supplies and personnel, evacuate strickenareas, and coordinate boat traffic. This includes acting as guides to safemoorings, to secure small craft, or any other tasks necessary to speedpreparations for, or relief from, emergency conditions.

E.3. Role of CoastGuard

The Coast Guard is typically part of any local emergency managementplan. In this role, Coast Guard boats may be called upon to assist inevacuations of the civilian population. As seen in many disasters, thereoften are people who do not want to evacuate ahead of time. The CoastGuard has federal law enforcement powers (the Auxiliary does not), butthe local officials are the proper people to handle these civil situations andto provide guidance. However, politely explaining the situation mayconvince a reluctant person to take the right action.

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Section F. Port Security and Maritime Pollution

F.1. General Port security and maritime pollution issues both fall under the CoastGuard Directorate of Marine Safety and Maritime EnvironmentalProtection. Typically, the Captain of the Port (COTP) is the field unitresponsible to implement these programs. The COTP may have theresources or may have to call upon local Coast Guard facilities toprovide boats. Port security is concerned about waterside securitymeasures, typically within a security zone. Maritime pollution patrolsfocus on detecting, reporting, and monitoring of oil spills and hazardousmaterial discharges into U.S. navigable waters.

F.2. Security zonepatrol

There is no federal, state, or local military service or civilian agencywith the waterside resources, expertise, and lawful maritime authoritycomparable to that of the Coast Guard. The COTP has developedtactics and countermeasures to deal with waterborne threats. Assetslikely to be at risk include:

• ship

• pier or port complex

• waterfront facility

• people

F.2.a. Operations

NOTE $$

The COTP will provide specialized equipment and training, if needed. Acommand center should be established with direct control by the COTPover all Coast Guard deployed resources. Most security zoneenforcement requires simple patrolling or “policing” of the zoneboundaries. This is usually done by one or two boats patrolling theperimeter. The security zone may be established around a fixed site suchas a pier, or it may be a moving security zone for a vessel underway.The moving security zone usually requires at least two boats.

No security operationis routine. Keep alertand aware of yoursurroundings at alltimes.

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F.3. Pollution patrol There are usually two types of pollution patrol: a patrol to detect orprevent spills, and a patrol in response to a spill. The boat may be givenspecific areas to visually inspect or given general direction to cruisealong the waterfront and shoreline to look for any discharges.

F.3.a. Detection orprevention

The local operational commander will have a boat patrol to detect anyunreported spills or discharges. Early detection this way may keep theincident from growing into a major spill. Also, the source of the spillmay be identified - this may stop someone from intentionallydischarging pollution AND also identify the person or company whowill pay the costs for cleanup.

F.3.b. Response to aspill

Response to a pollution incident will often involve boats in some type ofpatrol duty, such as monitoring the situation. The person coordinatingthe response to the incident, the On-Scene Commander (OSC), willhave an incident command structure to provide tasking and guidance forboat operations.

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Chapter 3: Crew EfficiencyFactors

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

This chapter specifies the physical fitness standards that all crew membersare required to meet. It also describes some of the hazards and uniquediscomforts boat crews cope with when operating boats in the marineenvironment. The combination of many factors such as extreme hot orcold weather, fatigue, and seasickness are all factors that can impair crewperformance. Understanding these factors will help crew members remainat the highest level of efficiency while underway.

In this chapter This chapter is divided into eight sections:

Section Title See PageA Physical Fitness Standards 3-3B Crew Fatigue 3-9C Motion Sickness 3-13D Lethal Fumes 3-15E Noise 3-17F Drugs and Alcohol 3-19G Cold Related Factors 3-21H Sun and Heat Related Factors 3-29

Specific treatmentprocedures for theconditions describedin this chapter, arecovered in Chapter6 - First Aid chapterof this manual.

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Section A. Physical Fitness Standards

A.1. General

NOTE $$

All Coast Guard crew members are required to meet the followingstandards of physical fitness. Physical fitness standards are required toensure crew members have sufficient strength, flexibility, and enduranceto safely perform duties during normal and adverse conditions. Knowingthese standards will ensure that personnel are able to accurately guagetheir level of fitness and make improvements where necessary.

A.2. Arm andshoulder strength

The requirements to meet for arm and shoulder strength are to perform asmany correct push-ups as possible in one minute. Refer to Figure 3-1 forthe required fitness standards.

FITNESS STANDARDSMales Push-ups Sit-ups Sit and Reach 1.5 Mile Run 12 Minute Swim*

under 30 29 38 16.5” 12:51 500 yds.30 to 39 24 35 15.5” 13:36 450 yds.40 to 49 18 29 14.25” 14:29 400 yds.50 to 59 15 25 12.5” 15:26 350 yds. 60+ 13 22 11.5” 16:43 300 yds.Females Push-ups Sit-ups Sit and Reach 1.5 Mile Run 12 Minute Swim*

under 30 23 32 19.25” 15:26 400 yds.30 to 39 19 25 18.25” 15:57 350 yds.40 to 49 13 20 17.25” 16:58 300 yds.50 to 59 11 16 16.25” 17:55 250 yds. 60+ 9 15 16.25” 18:44 200 yds.

*Note: 12 minute swim test chart is based on Dr. Kenneth Coopers research.

Physical Fitness StandardsFigure 3-1

Auxiliary PhysicalStandards are foundin COMDTINSTM16798.3 (series)for being a crewmember on anAuxiliary facility.

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A.2.a. One minutepush-ups

Perform as many correct push-ups as possible in one minute.

Step Procedure

1 Start with hands shoulder-width apart.

2 Males will be on hands and toes only, females will placeknees on the deck and position hands slightly forward ofshoulders.

3 In the up position, the elbows must be fully extended.

NOTE $$

4 For a proper push-up to be completed, lower the body untilthe chest is within one fist distance of the deck, and thenreturn to the up position.

A.2.b. Fitnessstandards

Age Push-upsMales

under 30 2930 to 39 2440 to 49 1850 to 59 15

60+ 13Femalesunder 30 2330 to 39 1940 to 49 1350 to 59 11

60+ 9

The back must be kept straight the entire time.

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A.3. Abdominaland trunk strength

The requirements to meet for abdominal and trunk strength are toperform as many correct sit-ups as possible in one minute. Refer toFigure 3-1 for the required fitness standards.

A.3.a. One minutesit-ups

Perform as many correct sit-ups as possible in one minute.

Step Procedure

NOTE $$1 Lie on back, bend knees, place heels flat on the floor about

18 inches away from buttocks, and keep fingers loosely onside of the head. Hands may not come off of side of headfor sit-up to count.

2 In the up position, elbows will touch the knees, then returnso that both shoulder blades are touching the deck.

NOTE $$ 3 The buttocks should never leave the deck.

A.3.b. FitnessStandards

Age Sit-upsMales

under 30 3830 to 39 3540 to 49 2950 to 59 25

60+ 22Femalesunder 30 3230 to 39 2540 to 49 2050 to 59 16

60+ 15

Feet may beanchored.

Any resting shouldbe done in the upposition.

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A.4. Flexibility To meet the flexibility standard you must be able to reach to at least aspecified measurement sitting with feet against a box that has a yardstickon top of the box with the 15-inch mark even with the edge of the box.Refer to Figure 3-1 for the required fitness standards.

A.4.a. Sit andreach

Place a yardstick on top of a box with the 15-inch mark even with theedge of the box.

Step Procedure

1 Warm up and stretch sufficiently.

NOTE $$

2 Remove shoes and sit with feet flat against the box.

3 Feet must be no more than eight (8) inches apart.

4 Place the hands exactly together, one on top of the other,with the fingers extended.

5 Keep the knees extended and the hands together.

6 Lean forward without lunging and reach as far down theyardstick as possible.

7 Record the reach to the nearest ½ inch.

8 Three trials are allowed to pass the minimum standard.

A.4.b. Fitnessstandards

Age Sit and ReachMales

under 30 16.5”30 to 39 15.5”40 to 49 14.25”50 to 59 12.5”

60+ 11.5”

The 15-inch mark is between the individual’s feet with the end ofthe yardstick, 0 inches through 15 inches, extending forwardtowards the subject’s knees.

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Femalesunder 30 19.25”30 to 39 18.25”40 to 49 17.25”50 to 59 16.25”

60+ 16.25”

A.5. Endurance The requirement to meet the endurance standard is to run/walk 1.5 milesin, or perform a 12-minute swim. Refer to Figure 3-1 for the requiredfitness standards.

A.5.a. 1.5 milerun/walk

For the endurance qualification, an individual will be required to run/walk1.5 miles, or perform a 12-minute swim within the indicated time.

Step Procedure

1 Refrain from smoking or eating for two (2) hours prior tothis test.

2 Warm up and stretch sufficiently.

3 Run or walk 1.5 miles in the required amount of time for theappropriate age bracket.

4 If possible, receive pacing assistance, either by having atrained pacer run alongside or by calling out lap times duringthe test.

5 Be forewarned not to start out too fast and not to run tocomplete exhaustion during the test.

6 At the end of the test, walk for an additional five (5) minutesto aid in recovery.

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A.5.b. 12-minuteswim

The 12-minute swim is an alternative method to fulfill the endurancequalification.

Step Procedure

1 Warm up and stretch sufficiently.

2 Swim the required distance for the appropriate age bracketin 12 minutes.

3 Use whichever stroke desired and rest as necessary.

A.5.c. Fitnessstandards

Age 1.5 mile run/walk 12 Minute SwimMales

under 30 12:51 500 yds.30 to 39 13:36 450 yds.40 to 49 14:29 400 yds.50 to 59 15:26 350 yds.

60+ 16:43 300 yds.Femalesunder 30 15:26 400 yds.30 to 39 15:57 350 yds.40 to 49 16:58 300 yds.50 to 59 17:55 250 yds.

60+ 18:44 200 yds.

A.6. Annualassessment

Annual assessment should be performed by unit Wellness Representative(WR), unit Fitness Leader (FL), or independent support commandWellness Coordinator (WC) who have been trained to perform the samefitness assessments. These personnel not only perform the annual test,but also create unit or individual fitness routines to maintain or increasephysical fitness.

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Section B. Crew Fatigue

B.1. General The crew's physiological well-being plays an important role in the safe andsuccessful accomplishment of each Coast Guard mission. As a boat crewmember you will assist people during the worst conditions. At times youmay feel like you have reached the limits of your physical and mentalendurance.

B.2. Fatigue Mental and physical fatigue are among the greatest dangers during roughweather operations. The hazards of fatigue dramatically reduces thepowers of observation, concentration, and judgment. This reduces theability to exert the effort necessary, and increases the probability thatchances will be taken and prescribed safety precautions to be disregarded.The following are examples of situations that may cause fatigue:

• Operating in extreme hot or cold weather conditions

• Eye strain from hours of looking through sea-spray blurredwindshields

• The effort of holding on and maintaining balance

• Stress

• Exposure to noise

• Exposure to the sun

• Poor physical conditioning

• Lack of sleep

• Boredom

At times like these, do not be tempted to take chances, such as towing toofast or crossing a bar under dangerous conditions. Always keep the safetyof the crew and other passengers as the foremost concern.

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B.3. Crewresponsibility

The crew’s safety and welfare are the coxswain’s primary responsibility.Coxswains must be constantly aware of stress signs evident in their crews,learn to recognize fatigue, and take corrective action. Crew membersmust watch each other’s condition to prevent excessive fatigue fromtaking its toll. Note the ability of each member to respond to normalconversation and to complete routine tasks.

B.4. Symptoms The primary symptoms of fatigue are:

• Inability to focus or concentrate/ narrowed attention span

• Mental confusion or judgment error

• Decreased coordination of motor skills and sensory ability(hearing, seeing)

• Increased irritability

• Decreased performance

• Decreased concern for safety

Any one of these symptoms can cause mistakes in judgment or cause youto take shortcuts that could threaten the safety of the mission and crew.It is important to ward off the effects of fatigue before it gets too great.Fatigue can lead to faulty decisions and a “don’t care” type of attitude.

B.5. Prevention Coxswains must be aware of the dangers that exist when crew memberspush themselves beyond reasonable limits of performance. They shouldhelp eliminate mistakes caused by fatigue. Coxswains must not hesitate tocall for assistance when fatigue begins to impair the efficiency of theircrew.

Some preventive measures are:

• Adequate crew rest

• Dress appropriate for weather

• Rotate crew duties

• Provide food and refreshments suitable for conditions

• Observe other crew members for signs of fatigue

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B.5.a.Environmentalconditions

NOTE $$

Despite the normal operating climate in a particular area, all crewmembers must dress (or have clothing available) for unexpected weather.Keeping warm in cold weather and cool in hot weather helps preventfatigue. Some other environmental conditions that also promote fatigueare:

• Motion sickness

• Glare from the sun

• Wind and rough sea conditions

• Rain or snow

• Vibration (boat engine)

Information onBoat Crew FatigueStandards may befound inCOMDTINST16130.2 (series),CG Addendum toNational SARManual.

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Section C. Motion Sickness

C.1. Causes ofmotion sickness

Motion sickness (seasickness) occurs when there is an imbalance betweenvisual images and the portion of the middle ear which senses motion.Mental and physical stress, as well as the rolling or pitching motion of aboat, contribute to motion sickness. Reading chart work, or other tasksthat require close attention, will aggravate motion sickness.

C.2. Symptoms The motion of the boat, especially when the boat's heading produces awallowing or rolling motion, can cause the typical symptoms of nauseaand vomiting. The primary symptoms of seasickness are:

• Nausea and vomiting

• Increased salivation

• Unusual paleness

• Sweating

• Drowsiness

• Overall weakness

• Stomach discomfort

C.3. Prevention /medication

CAUTION !

Motion sickness can often be prevented or made less severe with differentkinds of antimotion medication, including the use of Scopolamine patches.Crew members who are especially susceptible to motion discomfortshould take medication when weather and sea conditions are such thatmotion sickness is likely to occur.

NOTE $$

Some antimotionmedications maycause drowsiness.Consult a medicalprofessional todetermine if otheralternatives areavailable.

Crew members susceptible to motion discomfort should take antimotionmedication throughout their watch since they never know when they will bedispatched on a mission. This medication taken just before getting underwaymay not have its maximum effect during the mission.

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Besides taking medication, there are other things that can be done to helpprevent seasickness.

• Stay out of confined spaces

• Stay above deck in the fresh air

• Avoid concentrating on the movement of the boat by looking outover the water toward the horizon or shoreline

• Avoid smoking

C.4. Restrictions

CAUTION !

COMDTINST M6710.15 (series), Antimotion Sickness Medications,restricts medication use. Specifically, it must not be given under thefollowing circ*mstances:

• Without medical supervision

• Within 12 hours of alcohol consumption

• To pregnant crew members

Do not take antimotionmedication if any ofthese restrictions applyto you.

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Section D. Lethal Fumes

CO Poisoning

D.1. Introduction Every year, people are at risk of injury or death from exposure to lethalfumes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas. It is themost common lethal gas encountered during boat operations.

D.2. Conditionswhere CO may bepresent

The following conditions are associated with CO poisoning:

• Fuel-burning devices

• Enclosed areas

• Underway

• Fires

D.2.a. Fuel-burningdevices

Operating any fuel-burning devices such as gasoline or diesel engines,CG-P1 and CG-P5 pumps, propane or alcohol stoves, acetylene torchesand kerosene heaters, produces CO fumes.

D.2.b. Enclosedareas

NOTE $$

Personnel can be quickly affected by CO fumes in areas such as closedco*ckpits or unventilated spaces below decks.

• Sleeping in a closed cabin while using certain types of catalyticand/or flame producing heaters.

• Working alone in an engine compartment with the enginesoperating.

• A defective exhaust system can allow fumes to accumulate in aconfined space on board a vessel.

If you find yourself ina compartment whichmay be affected bylethal fumes,breathable air may befound near the deck.Crouch or crawl on thedeck to reach an exit.

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D.2.c. Underway The boat does not need to be stationary for a problem with CO fumes tooccur. For example, a following wind can circulate exhaust gasesthroughout the co*ckpit of a slow-moving boat.

The construction of some co*ckpits or cabins can cause the eddies from awind current to draw fumes back aboard.

D.2.d. Fires Breathing the by-products of a fire is another source of dangerous fumes.Even a recently extinguished fire is still dangerous. Fires can also createother highly lethal fumes such as cyanide gases. This happens whendifferent types of plastics, upholstery, cushions, or electronics insulationburn.

D.3. Symptoms Symptoms of lethal fume poisoning can include one or more of thefollowing:

• Throbbing temples

• Dizziness

• Ears ringing

• Watering and itching eyes

• Headache

• Cherry pink skin color

D.4. Prevention • Always ensure adequate circulation of fresh air throughout the vessel.

• Try to minimize the effect of exhaust fumes on the vessel. This maybe as simple as making a minor course change or increasing speed, oropen a window or crack open a door, etc.

D.5. Response tovictims

The first senses affected by poison gases are those that control a person'sjudgment and decision-making ability. Once a person is affected bydangerous fumes, they may not be able to help themselves.

If carbon monoxide or any other type of poisoning is suspected, get thevictim to fresh air and get medical help immediately.

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Section E. Noise

E.1. Noise as afatigue factor

Any continual noise at the same pitch can distract, lull, or aggravate to thepoint where it adversely affects temperament and the ability to performproperly. Moreover, loud noise can cause hearing loss and contribute toexcessive fatigue. Coxswains should be aware of the effect noise may behaving on the crew.

E.1.a. Noisemanagement

NOTE $$

These are a few measures to help manage noise:

• Make minor changes to engine speed

• Adjust radio controls so they produce a minimum amount of static

• Use ear protection whenever noise levels exceed 85 decibels (SeeFigure 3-2 for decibel scale.)

Guidelines for preserving hearing are contained in COMDTINSTM5100.47 (series), Safety and Environmental Health Manual andCOMDTINST M6000.1 (series), Medical Manual.

Decibel ScaleFigure 3-2

Ear protection isrequired whenworking in, or makingrounds in, an enclosedengineering space.

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Section F. Drugs and Alcohol

F.1. General Alcohol and drug use cause slower reaction time, lack of coordination,slurred speech, drowsiness, or an overconfident attitude. Hangovers alsocause irritability, drowsiness, sea sickness, and a lack of concentration.Crew members who knowingly get underway for a Coast Guard missionwhile under the influence are violating Coast Guard policy and putthemselves and others at risk.

F.2. Prescriptiondrugs

Prescription drugs have the ability to adversely affect or incapacitate crewmembers. Certain medications can be as incapacitating as alcohol. Inaddition, many medications, if taken with alcohol, accentuate the action ofboth. Always notify the command if you are taking prescription drugswhich may affect your performance or prevent you from performing yourduties.

F.3. Alcohol Alcohol is a well recognized central nervous system depressant. It is oneof the most frequently used and abused drugs in our society. Even smallamounts of alcohol in the blood can seriously impair judgment, reflexes,muscular control and also reduce the restorative effects of sleep. Thelevel of alcohol in the body varies with the frequency and amount ofalcohol intake, the length of time following cessation of drinking and anindividual’s body weight A zero alcohol level is essential for boat crewpersonnel to meet the rigorous demands of boat operations. Detectableblood alcohol or symptomatic hangover are causes for restricting of boatcrew personnel from operations. Although some personnel maycompletely metabolize all alcohol well within eight or twelve hours, thistime span allows an adequate margin of safety before resumingoperations.

F.4. Tobacco The nicotine contained in tobacco is a quick-acting poison. Excessivesmoking causes depression of the nervous system and impairment ofvision. The carbon monoxide resulting from the combustion of tobacco isabsorbed by the bloodstream in preference to oxygen, resulting in alowering of altitude tolerance. Tobacco smoke also irritates therespiratory system.

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F.5. Caffeine The drug caffeine, contained in coffee, tea and many soft drinks, canproduce an adverse effect on the body. The amount of caffeine containedin just two cups of coffee appreciably affects the rates of blood flow andrespiration. In small amounts, coffee can be considered a nervous systemstimulant. Excessive amounts may produce nervousness, inability toconcentrate, headaches, and dizziness. Individuals accustomed to dailyintake of caffeine may develop headaches and experience a loss ofsharpness if daily intake is stopped or significantly curtailed. Caffeinewithdrawal syndrome may impact flight safety.

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Section G. Cold Related Factors

Overview

Introduction The purpose of this section is to briefly describe the precautions to takewhile operating in cold weather. Cold rain, snow, ice storms, and highwinds can develop with very little warning in certain parts of the country.Preparation before encountering these kind of conditions andunderstanding the effects of cold on personnel safety is vital.

In this section This section has this information:

Title See PageEffects of Cold Weather 3-22Hypothermia 3-23Frostbite 3-25Layering Clothing 3-26

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Effects of Cold Weather

G.1. General

WARNING II

Operating in a cold climate presents the challenge of keeping warmenough to tolerate the weather and yet effective enough to carry out themission. As the temperature drops or you become wet and tired, moreinsulation is required to keep the body from losing its heat.

G.2. Wind Wind affects body temperature. Those parts of the body exposed directlyto the wind will lose heat quickly, a condition commonly referred to as"wind chill." On bare skin, wind will significantly reduce skintemperature, through evaporation, to below the actual air temperature.

WARNING II

G.3. Crew fatigue The combination of rough seas, cold temperatures and wet conditions canquickly cause the crew to become less effective. Crew fatigue will occurmore quickly when these conditions are present. Many accidents occurwhen cold induced fatigue sets in because the mind loses attentivenessand physical coordination diminishes. Even a crew which is moderatelycold and damp will exhibit a decrease in reaction time which is also asymptom to the onset of hypothermia.

Excessive loss of body heat, which can occur even in mild weather conditions,may lead to hypothermia.

Prolonged exposure to the wind may lead to hypothermia and/or frostbite.

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Hypothermia

G.4. Hypothermia Hypothermia is the loss of internal body temperature. Normal internalbody temperature is 98.6o F (39 o C) and is automatically regulated by ourbodies to remain very close to this temperature at all times. A minordeviation either up or down interferes with the bodily processes. Beingtoo cold will adversely affect the body. Even a minor loss of internalbody temperature may cause incapacitation.

G.4.a. Observablesigns

WARNING II

Signs that a person may be suffering from hypothermia include:

• Pale appearance

• Skin cold to the touch

• Pupils are dilated and will not adjust properly when exposed tolight

• Poor coordination

• Slurred speech / appears to be intoxicated

• Incoherent thinking

• Unconsciousness

• Muscle rigidity

• Weak pulse

• Very slow and labored breathing

• Irregular heart beat

Expect a hypothermic person to tremble and shiver, however, thesesymptoms may not always be present. When a person stops shivering,their hypothermia may have advanced beyond the initial stages.

WARNING II

Prolonged exposureto the wind maylead to hypothermiaand/or frostbite.

Never give hypothermia victims anything by mouth, especially alcohol.

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G.4.b. Prevention

NOTE $$

NOTE $$

Cold and hypothermia affect crew safety and mission performance, andprevention must be a top priority. Coast Guard policy calls forhypothermia protective clothing to be worn when the water temperatureis below 60oF (15.5oC).

The Commanding Officer or Officer in Charge may waive the requirementfor wearing a hypothermia protective device on a case-by-case basis if thedegree of risk to hypothermia is minimal, such as in nonhazardousdaylight operations in calm water. However, proper personal protectiveequipment must be carried onboard.

Antiexposure coveralls are designed to be worn over the uniform in thesame manner as standard coveralls. For added protection, wearpolypropylene thermal underwear next to the skin to act as a moisturewicking layer.

NOTE $$

Units shall carry hypothermia protective devices on board under waiver conditions(except for ship’s boats operating within sight of the ship). Coxswains shall makesure crew members don a hypothermia protective device when waiver conditionsno longer apply (for example, when they encounter or anticipate heavy weather orhazardous operating conditions).

Treatment forhypothermia iscovered in Chapter6, First Aid.

Auxiliary boat crews must gain approval and direction from their operationscommander for waivers.

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Frostbite

G.5. Frostbite Frostbite is the development of ice crystals within body tissues. Frostbiteis most likely to develop in air temperatures less than 20oF(-6.6oC). These are factors contributing to frostbite development:

• Cold stressors, such as wind, air temperature, or exposure towater

• Any restriction of blood flow

• Lack of appropriate protection

• Skin exposure

G.5.a. Symptoms A frostbite victim will complain of painful cold and numbness in theaffected area. Waxy white or yellow white, hard, cold, and insensitiveareas will develop. As the area begins to thaw, it will be extremely painfuland swelling (reddish-purple) or blisters may appear. Areas prone tofrostbite include all extremeties where the blood has traveled farthest fromthe heart, such as the hands, feet, face, and ear lobes. A patient sufferingfrom frostbite should also be treated for hypothermia.

G.5.b. Prevention

CAUTION !

Cold weather clothing and equipment is essential in preventing coldrelated injuries and fatigue. Such items include thermal boots, woolensocks, watch caps, gloves, and thermal undergarments (polypropylene)fleece or pile. During cold conditions, coxswains should discuss thepossibilities of frostbite with the crew before getting underway.

Any person who hashad frostbitepreviously, is at anincreased risk forcold exposure injuryin that same area ofthe body.

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Layering Clothing

G.6. First layer -wicking

Staying dry is an essential factor to maintaining body temperature.Clothing worn next to the skin must carry or "wick" moisture away fromthe body. Cotton clothing pose particular problems. They absorb andretain moisture, which will rob body heat through evaporation. Wool hasgood insulating properties even when wet, but it is less than ideal becauseit stays wet. Modern synthetic wicking fibers such as polypropylene,Thermaxtm, or Capilenetm. do not retain moisture. They will actually drawmoisture from the skin and transport it to an absorbent outer layer. Thisgear works well by itself or it can be combined with a second layer forextreme cold.

G.7. Second layer- insulation

The insulating effect of a fabric is related to how much air it can trap.This is why a loose-knit or fuzzy material is better than one that is tightlyknit. It is also why two thin layers of a given material are better than onethick one. The second layer traps air, which retains body heat, whileabsorbing excess moisture from the first layer. Wool or cotton thermalsare an acceptable second layer if worn over a wicking layer, but a numberof synthetic fleece or pile garments do a much better job. An example ofthis is the fleece coverall.

G.8. Third layer -moisture barrier

Note $$

The outer layer should stop wind and water, so the inner layers can workas designed. Choices include the anti-exposure coverall, dry suit, or "raingear." The dry suits and rain gear have no insulating properties and willrequire extra insulation for cold weather. Also, as most dry suits do not"breathe," an absorbent second layer is needed so that perspiration has aplace to go.

Dry suits require aPFD. They haveno inherentbuoyancy.

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G.9. Extremities

NOTE $$

Most heat loss occurs through the extremities, especially the head. It isparticularly important to cover these areas well. It is still important tolayer properly, but thinner, or all-in-one materials must be used to reducebulk. For the head, a wool cap may work, but a heavy wicking hood orcap worn alone or under a wool cap will keep you drier and warmer. Arain hat/hood/sou'wester should be considered for wet weather. Glovesshould be waterproof, and a wicking liner glove will work better thanwool. High top rubber boots are the only option for wet weather. Awicking liner sock under a wool, cotton, or fleece outer sock will providethe best warmth. Insoles should be non-absorbent. A perforated foaminsole also works well.

For additionalinformation onHypothermia, readCOMDTPUBP3131.6 (series), APocket Guide toCold WaterSurvival.

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Section H. Sun and Heat Related Factors

Overview

Introduction Crew members must be aware of the dangers of too much exposure to thesun and take preventative measures to guard against a decrease inperformance. Performance can easily be affected by the heat and vibrationof the boat which can increase fatigue. This section discusses the varioussun and heat related factors that crew members may encounter duringtheir activities.

In this section This section contains this information:

Title See PageSun Burns 3-30Dehydration 3-31Heat Rash (Prickly Heat) 3-33Heat Cramps 3-34Heat Exhaustion 3-35Heat Stroke 3-36Susceptibility to Heat Problems 3-37

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Sun Burns

H.1. General Continuous exposure to the sun can cause sunburn and othercomplications such as heat stroke, dehydration, etc. Unprotected exposedskin will suffer from premature aging and an increased chance of skincancer.

H.1.a. Symptoms Sunburn appears as a redness, swelling, or blistering of the skin. Othereffects of overexposure to the sun are fever, gastrointestinal symptoms,malaise, and pigment changes in the skin.

H.1.b. Prevention

NOTE $$

If exposed to the sun for prolonged periods of time, take precautions.Stay in the shade when possible. However, just getting out of directsunlight is not always enough since sun can be just as harmful whenreflected off a bright surface, such as sand or water. Use sun screenlotion with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher. Wearprotective clothing; a hat with a brim and sunglasses with UV protectionfor eyes.

H.1.c. Treatment Most sunburns do not appear fully until after being exposed to the sun forseveral hours. Treatment consists of applying cool wet towels to theaffected area. Cooling the skin temperature is very important. Keep theskin moist but be wary of what product is applied. Many lotions containperfumes, alcohol, or wax which will only aggravate the burn. Severaltypes of first aid sprays give fast but short-lived relief.

For additionalinformation on heatrelated injuries, referto COMDTPUBP6200.12 (series),Preventive HeatCasualties.

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Dehydration

H.2. Fluid loss andhydration

CAUTION !

An adequate fluid intake is essential to remain healthy while underway.Fluids are lost from the body in several ways. The most obvious loss isthrough the kidneys. The less obvious loss of body fluid occurs throughperspiration from the skin and respiration through the lungs. As aresult, an average, healthy adult requires two or three liters of fluid aday to replace these losses. Extremely warm weather significantlyincreases the loss of fluids. Try to stay away from liquids such as tea,alcohol, coffee, and soft drinks. These liquids speed up fluid loss.

One vital element of body fluids that must be maintained areElectrolytes. The balance of electrolytes between intake and loss isimportant and must be maintained. Recent medical studies haveidentified that normal dietary practices will maintain an adequateelectrolyte level.

H.2.a. Symptoms Healthy adults must satisfy their water and electrolyte requirements.When water and electrolytes are not replaced, the body experiencesdehydration. Drinking alcohol and caffeine increases dehydration. Atfirst there is thirst and general discomfort, followed by an inclination toslow physical movement, and a loss of appetite. As more water is lost,an individual becomes sleepy and experiences a rise in bodytemperature. By the time the body loses 5% of body weight in fluids,the individual begins to feel nauseated. When 6 to 10% of body fluidsare lost, symptoms increase in this order:

• Dry mouth

• Dizziness

• Headache

• Difficulty in breathing

• Tingling in the arms and legs

• Skin color turns bluish

• Indistinct speech

• Inability to walk

• Cramping legs and stomach

Do not use salt tabletsunless prescribed by aphysician. The use ofsalt tablets does notimprove well-beingdespite the amount ofperspiration orsalt/electrolyte loss.

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H.2.b. Prevention Drinking fresh clean water is the best and easiest method to replace fluidloss and prevent dehydration. Almost all fluids are suitable including fruitjuices, soups, and water. Drinks that do not contain sodium (salt) arerecommended. Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day, especially inwarm, dry climates.

If you know you will be away from a source of water for a long period oftime, bring an ample supply of water with you.

H.2.c. Treatment

WARNING II

The signs of dehydration can be subtle. Be particularly watchful of othercrew members under extreme conditions of sun and heat. The crewshould be encouraged to drink fluids throughout the mission. Rotatingcrews between sun exposure tasks and shaded tasks will help preventdehydration. If a crew member becomes dehydrated, remove the personimmediately from further exposure to heat and/or sun. Get promptmedical attention. Mild cases will become serious if activity continues inthe setting where the illness first occurred.

Never force fluid bymouth to a person whois unconscious orsemiconscious.

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Heat Rash (Prickly Heat)

H.3. General Heat rash is prevalent among those living and working in warm, humidclimates or in hot spaces ashore or aboard boats. It may occur in coolweather if a person overdresses.

H.3.a. Symptoms Heat rash is caused by:

• breakdown of the body's ability to perspire, and

• decreased evaporative cooling of the skin.

Heat rash interferes with sleep, resulting in decreased efficiency andincreased cumulative fatigue, making the individual susceptible to moreserious heat disorders. Heat rash also accelerates the onset of heat stroke.Symptoms are:

• Pink or red minute lesions

• Skin irritation (prickling)

• Frequent, severe itching

H.3.b. Prevention Coxswains and crew members must be aware of negative effects broughton by heat rash, and be alert for symptoms when operating in a hotenvironment. Rotating crews between heat related tasks and those jobs ina cooler environment will help prevent heat rash from occurring.

H.3.c. Treatment If heat rash occurs, remove a crew member from further exposure toexcessive heat immediately. Take positive action to prevent the onset ofmore serious disorders. Apply cool, wet towels to the affected areas.

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Heat Cramps

H.4. General Heat cramps are painful contractions caused by excessive salt and waterdepletion. Heat cramps may occur as an isolated occurrence withnormal body temperature or during heat exhaustion. Recently stressedmuscles are prone to heat cramps, particularly those muscles in theextremities and abdomen.

H.4.a. Symptoms The victims legs will be drawn up and excessive sweating will occur.The victim may grimace and cry out in pain.

H.4.b. Prevention Follow the guidelines discussed previously for other heat relatedillnesses.

H.4.c. Treatment Treat heat cramps by placing the victim in a cool place. Encourage thevictim to lie down in a comfortable position. Offer cool drinks toreplace fluid loss. Solutions containing electrolytes, like a sports drink,are also useful, however, do not allow the ingestion of excessive salt.Do not treat cramped muscles with heat packs or massage. Get promptmedical assistance for severe or persistent conditions.

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Heat Exhaustion

H.5. General Heat exhaustion is more complex than heat cramps. The cause of heatexhaustion is a loss of too much water through perspiration.

H.5.a. Symptoms When suffering from heat exhaustion, a person collapses and sweatsprofusely. The victim has pale skin, a pounding heart, nausea,headache, and acts restless.

H.5.b. Prevention Follow the guidelines discussed previously for other heat relatedillnesses.

H.5.c. Treatment Immediately provide first aid treatment followed by rapid removal (in alitter, if possible) of the patient to a location that can provide propermedical care.

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Heat Stroke

H.6. General Heat stroke is a major medical emergency and results from the completebreakdown of the body's sweating and heat regulatory mechanisms.Heat stroke or "sun stroke” is caused by operating in bright sun orworking in a hot environment, such as an engine compartment. Theonset of heat stroke is very rapid.

H.6.a. Symptoms The major symptoms of heat stroke are:

• Skin is red, hot, and dry to the touch (cessation of sweating);characteristic body temperature above 105oF (40.5oC)

• Headache

• Weak and rapid pulse

• Confusion, violence, lack of coordination, delirium, and/orunconsciousness

• Brain damage will occur if immediate medical treatment is notgiven

H.6.b. Prevention Guard against heat stroke (in most cases) by using the procedures forpreventing other heat related illnesses described earlier in this chapter.

H.6.c. Treatment Heat stroke is the most serious of all heat disorders and is an immediatethreat to life. No matter which type of operation or assigned missionyou are conducting, ALL INCIDENTS OF HEAT STROKE MUSTBE CONSIDERED AS MEDICAL EMERGENCIES. There is a highmortality rate associated with heat stroke. Remember, heat exhaustionis the result of overloaded heat balance mechanisms that are stillfunctioning. Heat stroke strikes the victim when the thermo-regulatorymechanisms are not functioning, and the main avenue of heat loss,evaporation of sweat, is blocked. Treat the patient immediately ordeath may occur.

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Susceptibility to Heat Problems

H.7. General Personnel who are not accustomed to strenuous physical activity in hotand humid environments, are particularly susceptible to heat injuries.Excess body weight contributes to this susceptibility.

H.8. Clothing andequipment

Impermeable clothing does not “breath” and thus greatly increases anindividual's susceptibility to heat related illnesses. Clothing acts as abarrier that prevents evaporative cooling. Many synthetic fabrics reducethe absorption and dispersal of sweat needed to achieve optimum heatloss by evaporation.

Clothing and equipment should be worn so that there is free circulation ofair between the uniform and the body surface. Wearing shirt collars, shirtcuffs, and trouser bottoms open will aid in ventilation. However, thispractice may not be permissible in those areas where loose fitting or openstyle clothing would present a safety hazard (e.g., around machinery withmoving parts).

In full sunlight or a high radiant heat source (e.g., machinery spaces),keeping the body covered with permeable clothing reduces the radiantheat load upon the body. When not working in these areas, removal ofthe outer layer of clothing will help reduce body temperature.Impermeable clothing must be avoided. When using impermeableclothing, take precautions to avoid the rapid buildup of body heat. Heatillnesses may be manifested in minutes if impermeable clothing is worn.

H.9. Fever Febrile illnesses (fever) increases the chance of rapid heat buildup withinthe body. The presence of fever before heat stress exposure reduces theallowable exposure times.

H.10. Fatigue Cumulative fatigue may develop slowly. Failure to recognize this slowdevelopment increases an individual's susceptibility to heat relatedproblems.

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H.11. Prior heatillnesses

Prior heat illnesses lead to heat illnesses of greater severity with eachincidence. There are several preventive measures:

• Water

• Salt

H.11.a. Water The body needs water only in quantities sufficient to prevent dehydrationand electrolyte imbalances that result from losses in sweat, urine, etc.Under conditions of profuse sweating, each person will require one pint(0.5 liters) or more of fluid intake per hour. Take water in smallquantities at frequent intervals, such as every 20 or 30 minutes.

H.11.b. Salt The average diet provides from 15 - 20 grams of salt daily. This amountof salt is adequate for the prevention of most heat related illnesses.

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Chapter 4: Team Coordinationand RiskManagement

Overview

Introduction This chapter addresses human error and risk decision-making. Bothgreatly affect the safety of boat operations. Human error has been andcontinues to be a significant cause of boat mishaps. Ineffective riskdecisions many times have placed the boat and crew at greater risk thannecessary. Technical knowledge and skill alone cannot prevent mishaps.It also takes teamwork that minimizes, recognizes, and corrects humanerrors and a systematic process to continuously assess and manage safetyrisks.

Prudent seamen have exhibited and human factors researchers havedescribed seven critical skills that reduce the potential for human error-induced mishaps. Within these skills are important processes that serve tocontrol safety risks and improve team performance. These critical skillsare collectively titled “Team Coordination”. The processes are riskmanagement, crew briefing, and crew debrief.

This chapter mandates the use of team coordination, riskmanagement, crew briefing, and crew debrief as part of standardboat operations. It describes the skills, performance standards for each,coxswain responsibilities and training requirements. It also describes therisk management, crew briefing and crew debrief processes. To promotethese skills and processes, performance in team coordination shall beassessed as part of crew debriefs, Ready For Operations inspections,and Standardization Team visits.

In this chapter This chapter contains the following information:

Section Title See PageA Team Coordination 4-3B Team Coordination Standards 4-7C Risk Management Process 4-17D Informal Crew Briefing and Debriefing 4-27

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Section A. Team Coordination

Overview

Introduction Team is a collection of people, that uses the technical abilities of itsmembers to achieve a common mission. This chapter discusses how teamcoordination can control:

• human error,

• manage safety risks,

• and provide directions for continuous improvement in teamperformance.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageTeam Relationship 4-4Team Coordination and Risk Management 4-5

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Team Relationship

A.1. The largerteam

The boat consisting of the coxswain and crew is a team. But it also is apart of a larger team. Boats seldom perform missions without interactingwith other people. Members of this larger team are:

• the mission coordinator (the officer-in-charge or duty officer),

• other assigned Coast Guard assets (aircraft, boats, and cutters),

• other government, commercial and private parties (federal, state,and local officials,

• commercial salvagers, and Good Samaritans, as well as

• the “customer. ”

In this case, the customer is the person or vessel which is the focus of themission. The mission is the reason for getting the boat underway.

A.2. Coxswain The coxswain wears two hats as:

1. the person-in-charge of the boat team, and

2. as the member of the larger team.

Because the majority of boat missions have inherent safety risks, effectivecoordination of the boat team and the larger team is a cornerstone formishap prevention.

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Team Coordination and Risk Management

A.3. General Team coordination is like having a set of tools that if properly used can:

• control human error,

• manage safety risks, and

• provide direction for continuous improvement in teamperformance.

Proper use requires team members, the coxswain and boat crew, toroutinely use all seven team coordination skills all the time. The skills arethe good habits of exemplary leaders. They have been tested withincomplex missions, under ever changing conditions, and when crew stressand safety risks were high. Like the navigational rules of the road, whenteam coordination and risk management is properly used, an adequatesafety margin for mission operations can be maintained.

A.4. Seven teamskills

The seven team coordination skills are:

Skill DescriptionLeadership • Directing and guiding the activities on the boat,

• stimulating the crew to work together as a team,and

• providing feedback to the crew regarding theirperformance.

MissionAnalysis

• Making plans,• managing risks,• organizing and briefing the crew,• assigning tasks, and• monitoring mission effectiveness, including

debriefing the crew.AdaptabilityAnd Flexibility

• Altering a course or action to meet changingdemands,

• managing stress, workload and fatigue to maintainan optimal performance level, and

• working effectively with others.

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Skill DescriptionSituationAwareness

Knowing at all times what is happening to:• the boat,• the coxswain and crew, and• the mission.

Decision-Making

Applying logical and sound judgment based on theavailable information.

Communication Clearly and accurately sending and acknowledginginformation, instructions and commands, as well asproviding useful feedback.

Assertiveness • Actively participating in problem-solving, bystating and maintaining a position until convincedby the facts that your position is wrong.

• Speaking up and/or taking action whenappropriate.

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Section B. Team Coordination Standards

Overview

Introduction Team Coordination Standards identify expected behaviors among:

• the mission coordinator,

• coxswain, and

• crew

necessary to affect safe mission performance. These standards representthe expected performance in all missions.

Coxswainresponsibilities

Coxswain responsibilities represent the minimum required actions of acoxswain to achieve team coordination and risk management.

These standards and responsibilities shall be evaluated as part of crewdebriefs, Ready For Operations (RFO) inspections and StandardizationTeam visits.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageLeadership Standard 4-8Mission Analysis Standard 4-9Adaptability and Flexibility Standard 4-11Situation Awareness Standard 4-12Decision Making Standard 4-13Communication Standard 4-14Assertiveness Standard 4-15

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Leadership Standard

B.1. Standards ofleadership

The standards of leadership are:

• • The boat crew respects each other. The climate is an open one,the crew is free to talk and ask questions about the mission.

• • Regardless of assigned duties, the individual with the mostinformation about the situation-at-hand is allowed to participate inmission decisions.

• • When disagreements arise, the coxswain and crew directlyconfront the issues over which the disagreements began.

• • The primary focus is on solutions to problems. The solutions aregenerally seen as reasonable. Problem resolution ends on apositive note with very little grumbling among the coxswain andcrew.

B.2. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Be in charge and give clear and understandable direction to theboat crew.

• Monitor crew safety and progress. If unable to monitor safety,shall designate a safety observer.

• Balance and monitor crew workload and manage crew stress.

• Remain approachable and open to ideas and suggestions.

• Update the crew on significant mission changes.

• Provide to the crew timely, constructive feedback on performance.

• Provide to the mission coordinator timely updates on boat status.

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Mission Analysis Standard

B.3. Missionanalysis procedure

The following procedures outlines the steps involved in mission analysis.

Step Procedure1 The mission coordinator, coxswain, and crew know the mission

objective.2 The mission coordinator and coxswain discuss a plan for the

mission.3 Potential problems are briefly discussed.4 Time is taken to:

• assess risks,• eliminate unnecessary ones, and• reduce unacceptable risks.

5 The crew is briefed on the plan and may provide suggestions.6 Mission tasks are assigned to specific individuals.7 Contingency planning is done by the mission coordinator and

coxswain.8 As additional information becomes available, the plan is updated.9 Some discussion takes place to clarify actions in the event of

unexpected problems.10 The coxswain reviews crew actions and conducts a debrief of the

mission.11 Strengths and weaknesses are identified; remedial actions are

assigned to improve future performance.

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B.4. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Discuss mission objectives and hazards with the missioncoordinator as part of planning before getting underway.Understand level of risk that the mission has and how much riskthe coxswain is authorized to take.

• Take no unnecessary risks and have contingencies to deal withunacceptable risks.

• Brief the crew on mission objectives and the plan. Permit opendiscussion to ensure that tasks are understood and crew ideas areconsidered.

• Update plans based on changes in the situation and/or missionobjectives.

• Debrief the crew on mission performance; identify areas forimprovement.

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Adaptability and Flexibility Standard

B.5. Adaptabilityand flexibilitystandard

The following describe the standards for adaptability and flexibilitynecessary for mission analysis.

• Most distractions are avoided. The crew polices each other forfixation; takes positive action to regain situation awareness.

• The coxswain can decide what information and activities aremission essential. Most nonessential information is set aside.

• Crew tasks are prioritized to ensure safe performance. The boatcrew is aware of each others’ workload. When a crew memberappears overloaded, the workload is redistributed.

• The mission coordinator and coxswain are alert to possible crewfatigue, complacency, or high stress.

B.6. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Remain aware of own stress and own hazardous thought patterns.Take positive action to counter subconscious tendencies to reactto the excitement of the moment or arbitrarily discard informationthat conflicts with own perceptions.

• Implement cross checks of coxswain and crew actions to combatthe affects of fatigue for night missions or those that extend timeawake beyond 18 hours.

• Remain alert to the effects of complacency and high stress on thecrew. Take positive action to manage crew stress.

• Remain alert to work overload within the crew and redistributework as necessary.

• Notify the mission coordinator if the physiological condition of thecrew becomes a safety concern.

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Situation Awareness Standard

B.7. Situationawarenessprocedure

The following procedure describe the steps involved in situationawareness.

Step Procedure1 The coxswain provides the mission coordinator and the crew with

mission status (e.g., current operations and/or perceived location).2 Changes to situation awareness are verbalized.3 The crew or mission coordinator recognizes that a risk decision or

action must be made and offers suggestions or information to thecoxswain. The mission coordinator serves as a check of thecoxswain’s risk decisions.

4 If the mission coordinator perceives the boat or crew is takingunacceptable risks, positive action is taken to control the situation(e.g., stopping or slowing boat activities and/or providingadditional assets).

5 The boat crew checks each other’s task performance for errors.Anyone who makes a mistake is informed and makes neededcorrections.

6 The coxswain maintains an effective lookout.

B.8. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Not get underway without an understanding of the missionobjective, the known risks, and a plan of action.

• Ensure that the crew understands the mission plan, assigned tasks.

• Remain alert to mistakes in planning and crew errors. Likewiseempower the crew to double check coxswain decisions andactions.

• Remain vigilant to changes in the situation. Remain alert toconflicting or ambiguous information that may indicate that theperceived situation is different than the actual one.

• Periodically update the mission coordinator and the crew as to theperceived situation.

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Decision-Making Standard

B.9. General The following points reflect the standards of decision-making:

• Coxswain decisions reflect a willingness to use availableinformation from all sources.

• Most decisions are timely, but may be affected by stress.

• Most decisions are appropriate for the situation; however the crewmay overlook options or discount risk.

• The boat crew does not exhibit hazardous thought patterns (e.g.,anti-authority, invincibility, impulsiveness, machismo, orresignation).

• Before the coxswain decides and implements a change inobjective, the situation may worsen; however, missionaccomplishment is not affected and no loss occurs.

B.10. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Assess current situation and available information to determineability to meet mission objectives.

• Make use of available time to develop contingencies or alternativecourses of actions.

• Consciously weigh the risks versus the gain. Implement the bestcontingency or action to address the situation.

• Monitor the situation to ensure that the decision produced thedesired outcome.

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Communication Standard

B.11. General The following items reflect the standards of communication for a boatcrew team.

• The boat crew and mission coordinator communicate about themission as required. Standard terminology is used.

• Receivers acknowledge messages. Receivers ask questions whenthey do not understand.

• Senders usually pursue confirmation when no response isforthcoming and the message is important.

• When changes to crew tasks occur, all hands are aware. Thecoxswain states risk decisions to the mission coordinator and crewand as time permits informs the crew of the reasons and anyadjustments they have to make.

• The mission coordinator and crew acknowledges their awarenessof the risk decisions. Anyone may ask mission-related questionsto clarify information.

B.12. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Use standard terminology in giving commands to the crew and inconducting external communications.

• Ensure that information and orders conveyed to the crew areacknowledged by the intended receiver.

• Communicate intentions associated with risks to the missioncoordinator and the crew.

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Assertiveness Standard

B.13. General The following standards reflect the assertiveness necessary for eachmember of the boat crew team.

• The mission coordinator, coxswain and/or crew occasionally raisequestions about the plan or actions when they are either in doubt,or when they believe the boat is standing into danger. Most ofthese questions are relevant to risk decision-making.

• The coxswain alerts the crew or mission coordinator when input isneeded to make risk decisions.

• The crew or mission coordinator responds to the coxswain’srequest with pertinent, brief, and timely information. Everyoneremains open to questions about the mission.

• Suggestions are listened to without criticism.

• Requests for task assistance are made when overloaded.

B.14. Coxswainresponsibilities

The coxswain shall:

• Speak up when an error or poor judgment is perceived.

• Notify the mission coordinator when the coxswain perceiveseither: the level of risk has changed; the mission is beyond thecapabilities of the boat; or the crew has become overloaded oroverly fatigued.

• Encourage input and feedback from the crew.

• Treat questions and concerns of the crew with respect.

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Section C. Risk Management Process

Overview

Introduction Risk management shall be performed during the planning andexecution of missions. Risk management is an element of the missionanalysis skill and is a process to identify and control unacceptable safetyrisks. Every mission event (getting underway, transit, on sceneoperations, mooring) has some level of risk and not all the risks areknown. Every event requires that risks are kept within controls(safeguards) that have been designed to handle them.

Examples of these controls includes the proper use of installedcommunications and navigation systems and proper execution ofoperating procedures. Effective risk management is highly dependentupon technical knowledge and experience.

In this section This section will contain the following information:

Topic See PageFour Rules of Risk Management 4-18Risk Management Process, Step 1 4-20Risk Management Process, Step 2 4-21Risk Management Process, Step 3 4-23Risk Management Process, Steps 4, 5, 6 & 7 4-25

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Four Rules of Risk Management

C.1. General To use the risk management process correctly the team must follow thesefour rules.

C.2. Rule #1 Integrate risk management into mission planning and execution.

• Risk management is an iterative and continuous process.

• Risk management is most effective when it is proactive. Itrequires that when new information on risks are received, theability to control those risks are reviewed. It requires thecoxswain and crew to remain vigilant and think safety until theboat is secured and the mission is over.

C.3. Rule #2 Accept no unnecessary risks.

• Unnecessary risk does not contribute to the safe accomplishmentof the mission. It is operating beyond the known capabilities ofthe crew and/or boat without considering other alternatives.

• Unnecessary risks are often taken when decision makersrationalize that the boat is the only alternative or that urgency ismore important than safety.

• Unnecessary risk taking constitutes gambling with lives,government, and private property

C.4. Rule #3 Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. Many times mishaps occurbecause the level of risk is not perceived by an individual.

• Understanding of risk is highly dependent upon technicalknowledge and expertise; therefore, risk decisions must be madeby clear-thinking, technically competent people with anunderstanding of the situation.

• The mission coordinator and coxswain should work as a team inmaking risk decisions.

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C.5. Rule #4 Accept risks if benefits outweigh costs. Eliminating unnecessary risk,leaves risk that is either acceptable or unacceptable for missionaccomplishment.

• Who owns the mission owns the risk.

• In some cases mission directives outline what is acceptable (likesustaining personnel injury and equipment damage to save lives).However in high stress situations, the line between acceptable andunacceptable may become fuzzy.

• Again, clear-thinking, technically competent people with anunderstanding of the situation must be involved in the riskdecision.

• Again, the mission coordinator and coxswain should work as ateam in making risk vs. gain decisions

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Risk Management Process, Step 1

C.6. General Continuous risk management during the course of boat operationsrequires cycling through the following seven steps.

C.7. Step 1 Defining the mission objective and tasks.

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Risk Management Process, Step 2

C.8. Step 2:Identifyinghazards

Identifying possible hazards to the boat and the crew. Hazards includeanything that could go wrong with equipment, in the environment, or withthe team.

• Equipment: Is the equipment functioning properly and can it beexpected to function properly throughout the mission?

• Environment: How will the weather, sea conditions, proximity toshoals, vessel traffic, and available light affect the mission?

• People: Is the team properly trained and capable of handling thedemands of the mission? Are they fatigued, complacent, orsuffering from physical or mental stress?

C.8.a. Riskcategories

To ensure that few hazards are missed, hazards must be discussed withinthe crew and between the coxswain and mission coordinator. Use theserisk categories to facilitate discussion:

Risk Category DescriptionPlanning Was there adequate time and information to develop a

good plan? As the planning time increases and moreinformation becomes available, the risk is reduced.As mission complexity increases, the time for planningshould also increase.

EventComplexity

The mission is made up of a chain of events. Howcomplex are these events? Do they require significantknow-how to perform? Many routine events arecomplex. As the event requires more know-how andattention to perform correctly, the possibility thatsomething could go wrong increases. Eventcomplexity can be greatly increased by darkness,which in turn increases risk.

Asset Selection Is the boat and this coxswain and crew best suited toperform this mission? Is the ready boat the rightboat? The capability and readiness condition of theboat along with the qualifications, experience, andphysiological condition (health and alertness) of thecoxswain and crew must be compared to the eventcomplexity and environmental conditions.

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Risk Category DescriptionCommunicationsand Supervision

1. External communications and supervision - Willthe boat be able to maintain good communicationswith the mission coordinator and other on sceneunits? Will the mission coordinator be able toprovide real-time oversight of boat activities as adouble check for safety? The less capable thecommunications, the higher the possibility thatrelevant information will not reach decisionmakers. Risk control may be less effective,double checks will be more difficult.

2. Communications within the boat - Can the crewhear orders over the ambient noise? Are theyassertively communicating through accurate, boldand concise statements?

3. Supervision of the boat crew - Even if the boatcrew is qualified to perform tasks, supervision bythe coxswain can act as a control to further mini-mize risk. The higher the safety risk, the more thecoxswain needs to be focused on observing andchecking. When coxswains are actively involvedin doing tasks, they can be easily distracted andshould not be considered effective safetyobservers in moderate to high risk conditions.

EnvironmentalConditions

Are the current and forecasted conditions, in transitand on scene, within the capability of the boat and thecrew? As the environment changes, risk controlsneed to be updated.

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Risk Management Process, Step 3

C.9. Step 3:Assessing the risks

Risk is a function of the severity, probability and exposure.

• Severity describes the potential loss. Should something go wrong,what would be the injury or equipment damage.

• Probability is the likelihood that the consequences described abovewill happen.

• Exposure is the amount of time, people or equipment exposed tothe hazard.

C.9.a. Riskcategories

Each risk category must be examined in terms of severity, probability andexposure to arrive at a subjective rating of risk. Again it is useful todiscuss individual perceptions of risk among the crew and between thecoxswain and mission coordinator

Risk DescriptionHigh Risk • Risks cannot be managed with constant

control.• Loss in terms of personnel injury or equipment

damage is expected.• The boat and/or crew is operating beyond their

capability.• Whether this risk is acceptable or not is

dependent upon the mission objective.• High risk must be communicated to the mission

coordinator.• An example is entering the surf zone with a

utility boat.Medium Risk • Risks are manageable with constant control.

• Loss is not expected if the situation remainsstable, the crew adheres to all standardoperating procedures, and boat systemsrespond as designed.

• The boat and/or crew are operating at theircapability

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Risk DescriptionLow Risk • Risks are manageable with control as required.

• Loss is not expected because the mission hasestablished margins of safety in place and theobjective will be modified if the margins arereduced.

• The boat and/or crew are operating within theircapability.

• An example is transit of a familiar area at a safespeed during the day in good visibility with afull, qualified crew aboard.

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Risk Management Process, Steps 4, 5, 6 & 7

C.10. Step 4:Identifying theoptions

Unnecessary risk has to be eliminated. What changes can be made toreduce risks to an acceptable level without changing the missionobjective? This can be done by examining:

• changes to the planned optempo (ex. slowing),

• command and control (ex. more guidance and/or supervision),

• mission tasks (ex. Simplifying),

• timing of tasks (ex. Sequential vice concurrent or daylight vicenight time),

• boat requirements (ex. More capable) or crew qualifications (ex.more experienced),

• number of assigned boats (ex. standby) and/or crew (ex. additionalmembers),

• required equipment and/or protective equipment.

If the discussion of options is limited to those that can be provided by theboat, few are available. This step needs to evaluate the options the largerteam can recommend to reduce risk. The larger team may have additionalresources. The larger team may be able to spread out the risk amongresponders or transfer the risk to more capable assets.

C.11. Step 5:Evaluating therisk versus gain

Did the mission coordinator validate that the risk assumed by thecoxswain is worth the mission objective? If risks seem unacceptable, canthe mission objective be modified to reduce risk to an acceptable level.

C.12. Step 6:Executing the riskdecision

This decision implements the best option given the risks and gains. Inexecuting the decision, the crew is made aware of what the expectedoutcome should be.

C.13. Step 7:Monitor thesituation

Did the action achieve the desired outcome? Are the risks within themission changing? If so repeat, the steps to manage those risks.

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Section D. Informal Crew Briefing and Debriefing

Overview

Introduction Informal crew briefings are required before the boat gets underway.Briefings for the coxswain and the crew helps create a shared mentalpicture of what is expected to happen and sets rules for the mission.

Informal crew debriefs should be performed after most missions.The debrief is the best opportunity to evaluate performance and recognizeindividual and team accomplishment. When correctly performed, thedebrief can serve as a valuable tool for continuous improvement. Itcan show the way from just ‘doing things right’ to knowing how to do‘right things right’

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageInformal Crew Briefing 4-28Informal Crew Debriefing 4-29

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Informal Crew Briefing

D.1. General The informal crew briefing shall be comprised of the following topics.

D.2. Include themission objective

Include the mission objective, known information and risks regarding themission, and the planned course of action.

D.3. Specifyduties andresponsibilities

Be specific in assigning duties and responsibilities. Mission coordinatorexpectations should be understood by the coxswain and conveyed to thecrew. Don’t let the crew have to second guess what is needed to bedone, or in special situations, how it should be done.

D.4. Establishpositive climatefor teamwork

Establish a positive climate for teamwork. The crew is encouraged todouble check each other, point out errors, speak up when they haverelevant information, and ask questions when they do not understand.

D.5. Discussimprovement goals

Restate the goal for improving one or two weak areas in crewcoordination. This goal was generated from a previous crew debrief. Tryto be as specific as possible in describing what is considered animprovement.

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Informal Crew Debrief

D.6. General The informal crew debrief shall cover the following topics.

D.7. Recap majorevents

Recap major events of the mission (e.g., preparations, transit, on sceneoperations).

D.8. Determinelevel ofperformance

Determine level of performance within key events. Key events include thecrew brief, critical navigation segments of the transit, bar crossings,approaches to vessels, personnel transfers and other hazardous parts ofthe assigned mission.

D.9. Whataffected theoutcome of events?

Have the coxswain and crew, and when possible the command, discusswhat human behavior or risk decisions affected the outcome in theseevents. This discussion is for professional growth and learning. Discusswhat behavior/decisions exceeded the Boat Crew CoordinationStandards, and what behavior/decisions failed to meet Boat CrewCoordination Standards.

D.10. Has goalbeen met?

Determine if the goal to improve one or two weak coordination areas hadbeen met.

D.11. Set newgoals

Set, change, or affirm a specific goal for improving one or two weakareas in crew coordination. Goals are set or changed with the knowledgeand guidance of the command.

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Chapter 5: First Aid

Overview

Introduction This chapter provides basic first aid and transporting information forinjuries encountered in the marine environment. First aid is doing whatmust be done before expert help is available. It may include:

• Being immediate, and temporary

• Saving life

• Preventing further injury or unfavorable progression

• Preserving vitality and resistance to infection

• Delivering victim if necessary

In this chapter These items are discussed in this chapter:

Section Title See PageA Crew Members’ Roles 5-3B Treatment for Shock 5-7C Resuscitation Methods and Emergencies 5-15D Treatment for Wounds, Fractures, and Burns 5-23E Environmental Injuries 5-47F Miscellaneous Emergencies 5-61

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Section A. Crew Members’ Roles

Overview

Introduction Proper knowledge and skill in first aid are essential for boat crewmembers. A well trained crew that responds effectively and professionallyto an emergency situation may be the difference between life and death ortemporary injury and disability of the victim.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageCrew Responsibilities 5-4Handling and Transporting of Injured 5-6

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Crew Responsibilities

A.1. General The Coast Guard authorizes crew members to render first aid, consistentwith their training, in their role as emergency assistants regardless of theirfirst aid qualifications. A unit commander should always be advised ofemergency medical situations. In addition, crew members must contactthe Station or Group watchstander and request immediate medicalassistance for serious injury cases so that appropriate medical resourcescan be contacted. The Station or Group will activate an establishedEmergency Medical Services (EMS) system such as 911, or localfire/rescue squad. Crew members providing first aid must do thefollowing:

• Evaluate the scene.

• Consider - are rescuers trained and equipped to safely renderassistance.

• Protect themselves from injury or infection.

• Keep calm.

• Act quickly.

• Call station or group as appropriate to activate EMS if necessary.

A.2. Sceneassessment

When responding, make a quick survey of the scene. Do not enter anunsafe scene until fully prepared and protected against hazards such asexposed electrical wires, toxic vapors, fire, blood, or body fluids. Asrescuers, injured crew members unable to help anyone else will complicatean already difficult scene.

A.2.a. Initialpatient assessment

Stop and assess the overall condition of the victim. Determine whether ornot assisting the patient with the resources at hand is possible or if itrequires further help. When more definitive care is required for moreserious injury cases, seek assistance immediately. Call for help and

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activate the local EMS system. The following information is important tonotice during an initial assessment:

• Number of patients

• General condition of patient(s)

• Mechanism [type] of injury

• Patient(s) level of consciousness

• Monitoring for causes or symptoms of shock:

NOTE $$

– Mechanisms consistent with a serious injury such as a gun shotwound, fall from a great height, major burn, crushing accident,etc.

– If the patient's state-of-health has been compromised, forexample, prolonged exposure to the elements, dehydration,malnourishment, etc.

A.3. Protectivedevices

WARNING II

Human blood may contain blood borne pathogens such as Hepatitis Bvirus and HIV which causes Hepatitis B and AIDS (respectively). Crewmembers should take all reasonable precautions to prevent direct contactwith human blood by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) suchas clean disposable gloves or more complete equipment depending on thedegree of contamination before making contact with the patient. Ifavailable, wear masks and eye protection in any instance of known orsuspected respiratory infection (i.e., TB). Dispose of blood-soaked glovesand other material with great care. Contact a medical clinic or emergencyroom for disposal advice. Coast Guard units should maintain informationon medical waste disposal.

In this section, serious injury cases are considered those that need attention from amedical professional. A serious case also may be one that a crew decides the injuryis beyond its medical capabilities.

Unprotected crew members, who come in direct contact with human blood, shouldimmediately report each incident to their operational commander servicing medicalfacility and follow professional medical advice. Refer to COMDTINST M6220.8,Prevention of Blood Borne Pathogen Transmission, for more information.

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Handling and Transporting of Injured

A.4. General Transporting injured persons aboard boats to medical treatment facilitiesis a serious problem regularly encountered by boat crew members. Inmany situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, for medical help to reachvictims. Therefore, the boat crew must possess a basic knowledge of howto transport injured persons safely and quickly to a location whereappropriate medical treatment is available.

A.5. Coxswainduty

The sooner a victim arrives at a place where medical attention is available,the better. It is the responsibility of the coxswain and crew to safelytransport the victim as rapidly as possible, while preventing further injury,shock, or unnecessary pain.

A.6. Moving apatient

Moving a patient is precise work and any carelessness is unacceptable. Itrequires close teamwork and great care. Even procedures that may seemsimple and obvious, such as placing a patient on a stretcher, demandtraining, coordination, and skill.

These are important rules to remember when transporting an injuredperson:

• Notify station so that appropriate medical resources can beactivated.

• If possible, avoid moving the patient until that person is examinedand all injuries are protected by properly applied splints, dressing,etc.

• If head or neck injury is suspected, immobilize prior to movement.

• Seek assistance before moving a patient.

• For conscious patients, always explain the move procedure inadvance.

• Patient movements should be careful, deliberate, and the minimumrequired.

• Almost all patients are transported laying down.

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Section B. Treatment for Shock

Overview

Introduction Shock can be effectively reduced or eliminated if proper steps are taken.It is important that crew members understand how to identify and treatshock. It may accompany injury and can reduce a victim's ability to dealwith and survive serious injuries. Shock by itself, even when no injuriesare involved, can be very serious and life threatening. Crew membersmust be aware of the events and symptoms that cause shock.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageShock Syndromes 5-8Anaphylactic Shock 5-12

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Shock

B.1. General

NOTE $$

Shock is a depressed physiological or mental state. Shock Syndrome, aset of symptoms which occur together, can change throughout treating aninjury and are unique for every casualty. Signs and symptoms maydevelop rapidly or be delayed for up to several hours after the apparentcause. The symptoms usually precede the signs. Several types of shockexist, therefore, recognizing and treating shock immediately is important.Some syndromes do not appear in every casualty nor are they equallynoticeable.

B.2. Causes Some events that typically cause shock are:

• Trauma (bleeding, blunt (e.g. a fall, being struck by a blunt object,etc.), fractures, and burns)

• Allergic reactions

• Hypothermia

• Drugs

• Toxins

• Heart attack

• Illnesses such as diabetes

• Emotional

Shock can occur atanytime duringfirst aid andshould be assessedfirst andmonitoredthroughouttreatment.

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B.3. Symptomsand signs

Symptoms include:

• Restlessness

• Faint

• Thirst

• Nausea

• Weakness

• Anxiousness

• Fright

• Dizziness

Signs include:

• Pulse - weak and rapid

• Breathing - shallow, rapid, and irregular

• Skin - cold, clammy (sweating)

• Pupils - dilated

• State of consciousness - alert (may be deceiving) to unconscious

B.4. Assessment Strong signs and symptoms of shock can be identified by skin color, pulserate, monitoring respiration, and a victim’s level of consciousness. Thefollowing table describes the strong signs of shock.

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Area Normal SignsSkin Color Adult skin is normally

dry, not excessively paleor wet to the touch, andthe observed mentalcondition is normallycalm.

A person in shock mayhave pale looking skin thatis cold and clammy to thetouch.

Eyes Pupils appear to be dilated.Pulse Normal pulse for an adult

is regular, strong, andbetween 60-100 beats perminute.

A shock patient willappear restless, and has apulse that feels weak and ismore rapid than normal,usually greater than 100beats per minute.

Respiration Normal adult respirationis between 16-24 breathsper minute.

A strong indicator ofrespiratory distress wouldbe less than 16 breaths perminute, rapid and irregular,or greater than 24 breathsper minute. Immediateassistance is required inthese instances to avoidrespiratory arrest.

Consciousness Any time a patient's levelof consciousness is otherthan fully alert, it is aserious indication to seekmedical assistanceimmediately.

Person can appear anywhere from alert (may bedeceiving) to unconscious.

B.5. Treatment To properly treat shock once it has been identified, boat crew membersmust administer initial treatment, followed by executing steps to ensurethe effects of shock are kept at a minimum.

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B.5.a. Initialtreatment

Initial treatment for shock includes limiting a patient's activity, ideallyhave the person lie down, being alert for the signs and symptoms ofshock. If unconscious, appropriate treatment is to activate EMS, andinstitute resuscitation procedures.

If CPR is not necessary, then identify other injuries, lie the victim down,keep the victim warm if not already overheated.

B.5.b. Continuingtreatment

Additional procedures must be followed and completed in order tocontrol the effects of shock upon the victim:

• Check for “medic alert” or other information tags

• Obtain history for medical problems (heart disease, diabetes,allergies, medications)

• Notify station or group to obtain help and transport as advised

• Provide specific treatment if advised and trained to do so

• Position - flat on back, elevate the lower extremities about 8 to 10inches, if no head injury or trouble breathing and being careful ofany other injuries (See Figure 5-1).

Elevating Lower ExtremitiesFigure 5-1

• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if indicated and trained toprovide

• Warm (blankets) (If hot, do not warm.)

• Moisten lips, do not allow patient to eat or drink

• Never give alcohol

• Handle gently

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Anaphylactic Shock

B.6. General Anaphylactic shock is a rapid, extreme allergic reaction. People who aresubject to this type of shock should carry medical identification at alltimes. Sensitivity reactions can occur within seconds of contact and canresult in death within minutes of contact. It is imperative to be able torecognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock in order to relaythe gravity of the situation to qualified medical personnel.

B.7. Causes Anaphylactic shock can be caused by eating fish or shellfish, ingestingparticular types of berries or oral drugs such as penicillin. Insects stingsfrom yellow jackets, hornets, wasps, etc., injected drugs, exercise, cold,and inhaled substances such as pollen or dust may also cause sensitivityreactions.

B.8. Symptomsand signs

Symptoms of anaphylactic shock include:

• Skin: itching; hives (raised rash); flushing (redness)

• Swelling of lips; tongue; feet; throat; hands

• Respiratory tract: wheezing; shortness of breath; coughing

• Gastrointestinal: nausea and vomiting; abdominal cramps;diarrhea

• Headache

• Sense of impending doom

• Loss of consciousness

Onset of symptoms may be rapid, within seconds, or delayed (up to twohours).

The signs for anaphylaxis are the same as those of shock.

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B.9. Treatment Anaphylactic shock requires medication to counteract the allergic reactionto the substance. If the victim carries an epinephrine kit, you may assistthem in administration, if trained. Treat the victim for shock and, ifnecessary, proceed to administer CPR.

• do not minimize an allergic reaction

• death can occur within minutes

• always keep station appraised of the situation so that appropriatemedical resources can be activated: medical attention should beobtained regardless of patient’s response

• record all that is observe or performed

• reactions with similar symptoms include hyperventilation; alcoholintoxication; hypothermia; low blood sugar; anxiety attack

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Section C. Resuscitation Methods and Emergencies

Overview

Introduction When a person stops breathing, seconds count. Death can occur withinfour to six minutes after respiratory failure. It is imperative to startresuscitation immediately. Boat crew members are required to attendtraining every six months to learn and maintain effective resuscitationmethods and skills. Auxiliary crew members, although not required, areencouraged to maintain their skills through training by qualified, certifiedinstructors and maintain their record of certification.

Events that may cause people to stop breathing include:

• Near drowning

• Suffocation

• Electrocution

• Poison gas

• Heart attack

• Drug overdose

• Choking

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageResuscitation Procedures 5-16Heart Attack 5-18Stroke 5-19Scuba Incidents 5-20

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Resuscitation Procedures

C.1. General Resuscitation is a general term that covers all measures taken to restorelife or consciousness to an individual. Measures taken to restore lifeinclude artificial respiration, cardiac compression, and cardiopulmonaryresuscitation (CPR).

C.2. Artificialrespiration

Artificial respiration, starting normal respiratory function, includes rescuebreathing maneuvers such as mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-nose, andmouth-to-stoma. A stoma is the opening in the lower neck through whichindividuals breathe when they have had their voice box removed.

C.3. Cardiaccompression

Cardiac compression is a method used to restore normal blood flow to thebrain.

C.4. CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) uses both artificial respiration andcardiac compression to revive a victim with respiratory failure. Oncestarted, it must be continued until properly relieved. The resuscitationprocedures are outlined in the following table.

Step Procedure1 Establish unresponsiveness: attempt to rouse the victim by

shaking and shouting (initial evaluation entails determination ofpatient’s responsiveness). Activate EMS prior to starting anyfurther evaluation or treatment.Look: to see if the chest rises and fallsListen: for air exhalation through nose and mouth

• Clear the victim’s airway if no there are no signs ofexhalation and listen again for air exchange.

Feel: for the victim’s pulse and air flow from nose or mouth• If there is no pulse or respiration, call for help immediately.

Attempt two breaths of CPR, and, if there is no response,perform the 1-man CPR procedure prescribed by theAmerican Heart Association or American Red Cross forBasic Life Support.

2 Treat for shock.

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Step Procedure3 Perform CPR: if the victim’s heart stops or respiratory failure

reoccurs after initial resuscitation, reinstitute CPR4 Obstructed Airway Procedures: should be performed if the

victim begins choking• Attempt to clear the object first by chest thrusts (infants,

obese, or pregnant persons) and back blows (infants) or byabdominal thrusts.

• Next, attempt back blows.• If the object is still not cleared, reposition the patient's

airway and sweep his or her throat. Do Not probe blindly asthis may force the object deeper into the throat.

• Continue with back blows or abdominal thrusts until theairway is clear or until medical assistance arrives.

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Heart Attack

C.5. General A heart attack is always considered a medical emergency since the victimis in significant danger of going into cardiopulmonary arrest and dying.Contact medical assistance immediately.

C.6. Symptoms There are many symptoms of a heart attack, some of which may not benoticed or recognized by a victim. Though heart attacks can occurwithout displaying all of these symptoms, the following are all symptomsof a heart attack:

• Severe, crushing type of pain under the breastbone, arms, neck,and jaw

• Profuse sweating

• Shortness of breath

• Extreme anxiety

• Nausea and vomiting

• Bluish discoloration of lips, fingernails, and skin

C.7. Treatment The following is the treatment for a heart attack:

• Keep a victim quiet and at rest. Administer oxygen via face mask.

• Place a victim in the position of most comfort. Sometimes thevictim may want to sit up, especially if the person is short ofbreath.

• Seek immediate medical assistance, activate local EMS system.

• Determine if a victim is on any type of medication for a heartcondition such as nitroglycerin. If so, determine if the victim hastaken the medication as prescribed.

• Reassure the patient that assistance is on the way or that transportto a hospital is imminent.

• Transport as quickly, but as safely, as possible.

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Stroke

C.8. General A stroke is any bleeding or clotting affecting the blood vessels of thebrain. Strokes can be mild or extremely serious and care must be taken totreat and transport stroke victims so that additional injury does not occur.Seek medical attention immediately.

C.9. Symptoms The symptoms of a major stroke are unconsciousness and shock, analysisof any part of the body or visual disturbances. However, if brain damageis slight, the only symptoms may be:

• visual disturbances,

• dizziness,

• headache;

• facial droop,

• difficulty in speaking, or

• muscular difficulty involving a body part.

Signs and symptoms may be temporary or come and go.

C.10. Treatment Activate EMS. Obtain medical assistance immediately. Treat as forshock. If the victim has difficulty breathing, help the person maintain anopen airway and give mouth to mouth resuscitation, if needed.

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Scuba Incidents

C.11. CoastGuard action

The Coast Guard has no statutory responsibility for providingrecompression treatment equipment or for managing decompressionsickness cases in SAR cases involving self contained underwater breathingapparatus (SCUBA) diving accidents. However, individuals may requestCoast Guard assistance in locating appropriate treatment facilities and fortransport to such facilities. The Coast Guard shall limit assistance toarranging or providing transportation for victims and advising interestedparties of the location for the nearest recompression facility. The CoastGuard boat crew should treat for shock (do not elevate the legs), whilearranging for evacuations.

C.12. Types ofscuba incidents

Scuba diving accidents include all types of body injuries and neardrowning. Commonly, a scuba diving accident occurs due to an existingmedical problem. There are two special problems usually seen in scubadiving accidents:

• Air emboli

• The "bends"

C.12.a. Air emboli Air emboli, or air bubbles in a diver's blood, are most often found indivers who hold their breath during ascent. This typically happensfollowing an equipment failure, or some other underwater emergency.Divers can develop an air embolism in very shallow waters. The onset ofsymptoms is often rapid and a victim's senses may become distorted.Victims may have convulsions and can quickly lose consciousness.

C.12.b. The“Bends”

NOTE $$

"Bends" is decompression sickness, which may occur as the result ofcoming up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive. Rapid ascent defeatsthe body's ability to filter escaping gases through the lungs resulting innitrogen gas bubbles in the blood stream. The onset of the "bends" isusually slow for scuba divers, taking from one to 48 hours to appear.Divers increase the risk of decompression sickness if they fly within 12hours after a dive. The symptoms and signs of decompression sicknessinclude deep pain to the muscles and joints, choking, coughing, laboredbreathing, chest pains, and blotches on the skin (mottling).

Immediately transportor evacuate allpatients with possibleair emboli ordecompressionsickness to thenearest medicalfacility.

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C.12.c. Associatedmedical problems

Major medical problems associated with the escape of air into the chestcavity or tissues may occur in asthmatics who participate in scubaactivities. The symptoms may be acute shortness of breath and the signsmay be similar to shock. Immediate advance medical attention isrequired. Activate EMS and transport as quickly as possible. Treat forshock.

C.13. Treatingscuba incidents

Position a patient for optimum breathing comfort, which for a consciouspatient is usually sitting up. DO NOT let a patient lie flat and/or elevatelegs:

• Treat for shock

• Do not let a patient lie flat or elevate legs

• Get dive profile

C.14. Equipmentavailability

Each District Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) and Group OperationsCenter (OPCEN) has information on all recompression chambers locatedwithin its area of operations. In addition, Diver's Alert Network (DAN)can be contacted by telephone for further assistance at (919) 684-8111.The RCC or OPCEN will need the following medical information toarrange the correct response for a scuba incident:

• Depth of a victim's diving activities

• Number of dives that day

• Victim's overall medical condition including current level ofconsciousness

• First occurrence of victim's symptoms (i.e., during ascent,immediately after reaching the surface, etc.)

• Problems which may have occurred during the dive, such as apanic ascent, loss of air at depth, or equipment failure

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Section D. Treatment for Wounds, Fractures, and Burns

Overview

Introduction In emergency situations, boat crew members must be able to temporarilytreat severe hemorrhaging wounds, broken bones, and burn victims. Asthe first on the scene, boat crew members must try to keep a victim calm,immobile, and alive until professional medical assistance can be provided.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageBandages 5-24Bleeding 5-26Fractures (Broken Bones) 5-35Burns 5-44

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Bandages

D.1. General This section provides basic information about first aid bandages andsplints. Preferably, use sterile bandage material in standard first aid orEMT kits. Otherwise, any large piece of clean cloth can be used as abandage, binder, or sling.

D.2. Types ofbandages

A bandage is a strip of woven material that holds a wound, dressing, orsplint in place, helping to immobilize, support, and protect an injured partof the body.

Various types of bandages come in first aid kits. They are designed to beadaptable to many different situations. For example, some are forcovering large areas but may be used as slings and others are useful as athick pad for applying pressure over a wound to control hemorrhaging.The following table describes the different types of bandages and theiruses.

BandageType

Use

NOTE $$ Binder A binder of muslin is used for injuries to the chest orabdomen. Use a large towel or part of a sheet as a substitutefor a binder. Hold the binder in place with pins, multiple ties,or other bandages e.g., cravat bandages. Do not apply abinder so tightly that it interferes with breathing.

GauzeBandages

Gauze is useful as a bandage for almost any part of the body.Most common uses of gauze bandages are as circularbandages and spiral bandages.

Band Aids Band aids or substitutes are useful for small wounds that areclean.

TriangularBandages

Triangular bandages are useful as an emergency cover for anentire scalp, hand, foot, or other large area. Also, use thesebandages as a sling for a fracture or other injury to an arm orhand. A triangular bandage can be rolled into a cravatbandage (a long, narrow strip). It is also useful as a figureeight bandage, tie for a splint, constricting band, ortourniquet. A folded cravat bandage can serve as anemergency dressing for control of bleeding, or over anotherdressing, to provide protection and pressure.

If bandages are notavailable, otheremergency bandagescan behandkerchiefs,linen, belts, ties,etc.,. Hold asubstitute bandagein place withadhesive, plastic, ormasking tape, safetypins, etc.

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D.3. Bandageapplication

There are two general principles for bandage application:

• A bandage should be snug, but not so tight as to interfere withcirculation either at the time of application or later if swellingoccurs.

• A bandage is useless if tied too loose.

D.3.a. Circulation Prevent interfering with circulation by:

• Leaving the person's fingertips or toes exposed when applying asplint or bandage to arms or legs.

• Loosening bandages immediately if a victim complains ofnumbness or a tingling sensation.

• Watching for swelling, color changes, and cold or cool tips offingers or toes.

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Bleeding

D.4. General Hemorrhage, or bleeding, is the escape of blood from arteries, veins, oreven capillaries because of a break in their walls.

D.5. Types ofbleeding

There are several different types of bleeding. Boat crew members mustlearn to recognize the basic types in order to know how to stop thehemorrhaging as quickly as possible. Types of bleeding include:

• Arterial

• Venous

• Capillary

D.5.a. Arterialbleeding

Blood that is coming from an artery is bright red and gushes forth in jetsor spurts that are synchronized with the victims pulse.

D.5.b. Venousbleeding

Blood coming from a vein is dark red and comes in a steady flow.

D.5.c. Capillarybleeding

Blood coming from damaged capillaries (smaller veins) is bright red incolor and oozes from the wound.

D.6. Riskassessment andmanagement forprevention ofblood bornepathogens

Evaluate the risk of acquiring a blood borne pathogen such as Hepatitis Bor HIV. Risk may be managed by the use of appropriate personalprotective equipment. Use at least latex or vinyl gloves. More extensiveequipment may be required depending on the situation. If not trained orequipped to handle the situation, notify the group or station so thatappropriately trained and equipped personnel can be mobilized. Do notbecome involved if not adequately protected.

D.6.a. Universalmedical precaution

In those instances where crew members may be exposed to human tissues(e.g., blood, seepage from burns, saliva, urine or feces), members shouldtake appropriate precautions to prevent contamination by using protectivegloves and goggles. Additional precautionary measures include thewearing of masks and protective gowns or aprons. Under allcirc*mstances, thorough washing of hands and any contaminated areashould be done with soap and water. Thoroughly wash hands with soapand water, even if gloves have been used.”

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D.7. Control ofbleeding

Control of a severe hemorrhage is always urgent. With only 10 pints ofblood in the human body, arterial bleeding can cause death in a short time.

D.7.a. Directpressure

WARNING II

The best method to control hemorrhaging is applying direct pressure tothe wound. To apply direct pressure, place the palm of a gloved handover the wound. Use sterile disposable gloves and never apply anungloved hand onto an exposed wound. To reduce the flow of bleeding,raise the injury so that it is at a level higher than the heart. Do this only ifa change in position will not cause additional harm to a victim (See Figure5-2). If immediately available, or if direct pressure does not control thebleeding, try using a thick pad of cloth held between the gloved hand andthe wound.

Applying Direct PressureFigure 5-2

To avoid anycontact withinfectious fluids,including blood,always wear cleandisposable gloveswhen performingfirst aid.

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D.7.b. Pressurepoints

If bleeding persists after applying direct pressure or if there is severearterial bleeding, digital pressure can be applied at pressure points.Pressure points are areas in the body where a major artery flows over abony prominence. There are 26 pressure points in the human body, 13 oneach side, situated along the main arteries (refer to Figure 5-3):

• Temporal

• Facial

• Carotid

• Subclavian

• Axillary

• Brachial

• Radial Ulnar

• Femoral

• Popliteal

• Doralis pedis

Always be extremely careful when applying indirect pressure (pressurepoints) as it may cause damage to the limb due inadequate blood flow. Donot substitute indirect pressure for direct pressure, use bothsimultaneously. Refer to the following table for location of pressurepoints and related areas, and the procedure to apply pressure to each area.

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Pressure PointsFigure 5-3

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PressurePoint

Location Procedure

Temporal Scalp or head Use this pressure point for no longerthan 30 seconds as it may cut off bloodto the brain.

Facial This point islocated in the“ridge” alongthe lower edgeof the bonystructure of thejaw.

Use only for a minute or two to helpslow blood flow from a cut on the face.

Carotid Begin at thetrachea at themidline of theneck

Slide your fingers to the sight of thebleeding and feel for the pulsations ofthe carotid artery. Place fingers over theartery and thumb behind the neck. Applypressure by squeezing fingers toward thethumb. Never apply pressure to bothsides of the neck at the same time. Applypressure for only a few seconds as thisprocedure cuts off blood circulation tothe brain.

Subclavian Deep behindthe collar bonein the “sink” ofthe shoulder

Push thumb through the thick layer ofmuscle at the top of the shoulder andpress the artery against the collarbone.

Axillary Under theupper arm

Press the artery just under the upper armagainst the bone from underneath.

Brachial Groove on theinside of thearm and elbow;two locations,near the elbowjoint.

Apply pressure to the point, grasp thevictim’s arm with the thumb on theoutside of the arm and fingers on theinside. Press fingers towards the thumb.See Figure 5-4.

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Brachial ArteryFigure 5-4

PressurePoint

Location Procedure

Radial andUlnar

Radial pointlocated onforearm closeto the wrist onthe thumb sideof the hand;ulnar pointlocated on littlefinger side ofthe hand

Apply pressure to both points to controlbleeding of the hand. Use the radial pointto control bleeding of the wrist.

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PressurePoint

Location Procedure

Femoral Front centerpart of thecrease in thegroin area,pelvic basin;two locations

Used to control severe bleeding on thelower extremity and leg amputation.Place heel of the hand directly on thepoint and apply a small amount ofpressure to the artery across the pelvicbasin.

Popliteal Back of theknee

Apply pressure to the point to controlbleeding from a leg wound.

DorsalisPedis

Top of foot Apply pressure to control bleeding fromthe foot and toes.

D.8. Treatment Refer to the table below for procedures for treating hemorrhages.

Step ProcedureBandageApplication

Apply a sterile, if available, or clean piece of gauze or clothto the wound. Do not remove this dressing if it becomesblood soaked. Reinforce the dressing with a second or thirdbandage on top of the original one. Elevating the extremityafter applying direct pressure should control most bleeding.

PressureBandage

A pressure bandage can replace direct hand pressure onmost parts of the body. Apply the pressure bandage byplacing the center of the bandage or strip of cloth directlyover the pad. Hold the pad in place by circling the bandageends around the body part and tie it off with a knot directlyover the pad (See Figure 5-5).

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Pressure BandageFigure 5-5

Step ProcedureElevatingInjured Area

If direct pressure does not control the bleeding, thenelevate the injured area, but only if no bone injury isinvolved.

PressurePoints

Apply pressure by placing the heel of the gloved handdirectly over the spot. Lean forward with the arm straightto apply direct and constant pressure.

Tourniquet If severe bleeding cannot be controlled after trying allother means and the victim is in danger of bleeding todeath, use a tourniquet. Remember that a tourniquet isuseful only on arms and legs. A tourniquet is a constrictingband placed around an extremity, then tightened untilbleeding from an artery has stopped. When a tourniquet isrequired, use the tourniquets available in a standard CoastGuard first aid kits. Otherwise, use any wide gaugematerial such as a webbed belt strap with a buckle.Apply a tourniquet as outlined in the following steps.

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D.8.a. Applyingtourniquets

Refer to the following procedures when applying a tourniquet.

Step ProcedureWARNING II 1 Place the tourniquet two to three inches above the wound, but not

touching the wound edges. If the wound is in a joint area or justbelow a joint, place the tourniquet directly above the joint.

2 Wrap the tourniquet band tightly around the limb twice and secureit in place.

3 Attach a note to the victim giving the location of the tourniquetand the time that it was applied. Always leave the tourniquetexposed to view. If it is not possible to attach a note, write theletter "T" on the patient's forehead with a grease pen, lipstick, orother suitable marker, and show the time it was applied.

4 After making the decision, and applying a tourniquet, DO NOTLOOSEN IT. This requirement may be modified, but only underthe following circ*mstances. As soon as the tourniquet is applied,if the injured person does not otherwise require treatment forother life threatening conditions (e.g., shock or hypothermia), thewound site should be cleaned to facilitate evaluation of thebleeding site. Once the source of the bleeding has been identified,the crew man can now initiate primary control of the bleeding bydirect pressure or packing with pressure, followed by the releaseof the tourniquet. The process of bleeding control (i.e., directpressure, pressure points) can be repeated as necessary.

5 Continue to treat for shock and obtain medical attentionIMMEDIATELY.

Tourniquets can beextremelydangerous!Tourniquets shouldonly be used when avictim is in dangerof bleeding to death!A tourniquet shouldonly be tight enoughto stop the bleeding!

Never hide atourniquet with asplint or bandage.

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Fractures (Broken Bones)

D.9. General Broken bones are frequently encountered by boat crews in the course ofmany rescue situations. It is important to develop the ability to identifyfractures immediately and treat them properly. Failure to do so canseriously complicate a fracture as well as cause other injuries.

D.10. Types offractures

A fracture is a broken or cracked bone. For performing first aid, boatcrew members should be aware that there are two types of fractures:

• Compound (open) Fracture: The bone has broken and an openwound is present. The bone may protrude from the wound, leavinglittle doubt that there is a fracture.

• Simple (closed) Fracture: No open wound is present, but thebone may be broken or cracked. Take care when handling a closedfracture as careless treatment may cause an open fracture, laceratea blood vessel, or cause more injury.

D.11. Symptoms Indications that a fracture has occurred may include:

• Pain, swelling, and discoloration at the injury site

• Misalignment (deformity) and/or disability of the injured part

• Victim’s information (may have heard a “crack” or “snap”)

D.12. Handling afracture

Treat every suspected fracture as if it were a fracture until it is provenotherwise. Handle as follows:

D.12.a. Limitmovement

Do not attempt to straighten broken limbs. Eliminate all unnecessaryhandling of the injured part. Be gentle and use great care when handlingany broken limb.

D.12.b. Immobilize Protect and immobilize all injured areas. Check for the possibility of morethan one fracture. Do Not be deceived by the absence of deformity and/ordisability. (In many fracture cases, the victim may still have some ability touse the limb). Keep the broken bone ends and the joints immobilizedabove and below the injury.

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D.12.c. Checkpulse

Check pulse in the area of the fracture before and after splint application.

D.12.d. Splint

WARNING II

Use a splint to immobilize the fracture. Selecting exactly the proper splintis less important than achieving immobilization. Whenever possible, splinta fractured arm to the patient's chest and a fractured leg to the other(unbroken) leg. Apply splints before moving the victim, while avoidingmanipulating the injured areas. Apply the splint snugly, but do not cut offcirculation. Splints should be well padded. Leave tips of fingers and toesexposed and check them often for circulation adequacy.

D.12.e. Shock Treat the injured person for shock. (Refer to Section B of this chapter.)Be alert for the development of shock during treatment. Shock maydevelop as a result of the fracture, pain from the treatment or otherinjuries not evident on initial assessment.

D.13. Treatmentof specific bones

In the human body there are 206 bones. Several of these bones, if brokenor injured, require very specific treatment based on the sensitive nature oftheir functions or their proximity to delicate organs or arteries.

D.13.a. Spine Any actual or suspected damage to the spine requires definitive care andcareful management. Permanent disability, paralysis, or death can resultfrom a spine injury.

• Treat all suspected spinal injuries by maintaining alignment andimmobilizing the spine as quickly and completely as possible.

• Seek further medical assistance immediately.

• Move a patient only as a last resort.

• Keep a patient flat and do not move the person's head.

• When transporting a patient, immobilize on a rigid stretcher andcarry the patient face up.

• Do not splint neck and spine fractures unless properly trained.

Never hide atourniquet with asplint or bandage.

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D.13.b. Skull The primary aim is to prevent further injury to the head, so do not spendtime figuring out whether there is a fracture or penetration to the skull.

• Do not let a patient move or try to move the person any more thanabsolutely necessary.

• Do not let a patient with a head injury become cold and do notgive the person anything to drink or any pain medication.

• Control bleeding by the use of absorbent dressings withoutapplying direct pressure.

• Seek immediate medical assistance.

D.13.c. Extremities When encountering actual or suspected fractures to any of a victim'sextremities, these are the general steps that must be followed:

Step Procedure1 Check for a pulse and sensation of touch in fingers or toes before

and after a splint has been applied. If either of these is absent, itincreases the likelihood of permanent damage. Make certain asplint is not applied over a bony prominence or tied too tightly.Loosen if necessary to reestablish feeling and pulse.

2 If possible, splint the injured part in proper alignment. If this is notpossible, splint to immobilize the limb in the position found.

3 If bone ends protrude from the skin, cover the exposed bone witha sterile dressing and handle with great care when splinting.

D.13.d. Forearm Place two well padded splints, top and bottom, from elbow to wrist.Bandage in place. Hold the forearm across the chest with a sling (SeeFigure 5-6).

Broken ForearmFigure 5-6

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D.13.e. Upper arm For fracture near the shoulder, put a towel or pad in the armpit, bandagethe arm to the body, and support the forearm in a sling. For fracture ofthe middle upper arm, use one splint on the outside of the arm, shoulderto elbow. Fasten the arm to the body and support the forearm in a sling.For a fracture near the elbow, do not move the arm at all. Splint it as it isfound (See Figure 5-7).

Broken Upper ArmFigure 5-7

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D.13.f. Thigh Due to the large artery and muscle mass, this is often a major injury and atraction splint may be required. Seek immediate medical assistance. Thistreatment management requires an EMT or person with more detailedtraining.

If an EMT or other qualified person is unavailable:

Step Procedure1 Use two splints, an outside one from armpit to foot and an inside

one from crotch to foot.2 Fasten the splints around the ankle, over the knee, below the hip,

around the pelvis, and below the armpit.3 Tie both legs together. Do not move a patient until this has been

done (See Figure 5-8).

This injury is often associated with major trauma and bleeding may occurif the thigh bone severs the adjacent femoral artery. Closely monitor apatient for signs of shock and do not manipulate the leg.

Broken ThighFigure 5-8

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D.13.g. Lower leg Use three splints, one on each side and one underneath. Always pad thesesplints well, especially under the knee and at the ankle bones. Also, use apillow under the leg with the edges brought around in front and pinned;then add two side splints (Figure 5-9).

Broken Lower LegFigure 5-9

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D.13.h. Collarbone Use the following procedures to immobilize the collarbone:

Step Procedure1 On the injured side, place the forearm across the chest, palm

turned in, thumb up, with hand four inches above the elbow.2 Support the arm in this position with a sling.3 Fasten the arm to the body with several turns of bandages around

the body and over the hand to keep the arm close against the body(Figure 5-10).

Broken CollarboneFigure 5-10

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D.13.i. Rib A broken rib can be very painful and very dangerous because of theopportunity for a broken rib to puncture a lung. A patient coughing upfrothy bright red blood may have a punctured lung. Seek assistanceimmediately and activate EMS.

If the crew member believes that a rib is broken, but the victim indicatesthat there is no pain, then do not do anything to try to ease pain (SeeFigure 5-11).

Broken RibFigure 5-11

Administer oxygen with patient at rest in a sitting position. This eases theeffort required to breathe. Patients with known or suspected fractured ribsshould be given a high priority for transport to a medical facility.

D.13.j. Nose Stop the bleeding. If conscious, have the patient sit with his or her headtilted backward. DO NOT tip head back if victim feels nauseated. Apatient should breathe through mouth. A cold compress or an ice bagover the nose eases pain, reduces swelling, and usually stops the bleeding.Place unconscious victim on his or her side to keep airway open.

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D.13.k. Jaw If an injury to the jaw area interferes with a victim's breathing,

Step Procedure1 Pull the lower jaw and tongue forward and keep them forward.2 Apply a four-tailed bandage under the jaw, with two ends tied on

top of the front of the head.3 Tie the other two tails on top of the head, and at the back, so the

bandage pulls the jaw up and to the rear.

A bandage must support and immobilize the jaw, but not press on thethroat. Place an unconscious victim on his or her side. Have a consciousvictim sit up.

D.13.l. Pelvis

WARNING II

Treat a patient with a pelvis injury for shock, but do not move unlessabsolutely necessary. When moving a patient, handle the person the sameas a victim with a fractured spine.

• Bandage the legs together at the ankles and knees and place apillow at each hip and secure them.

• Fasten the patient securely to the stretcher.

This injury is often associated with major trauma and frequently involvesbleeding that is undetectable. Closely monitor a patient with a pelvicfracture for signs of shock which may be caused by heavy internalbleeding.

Never “log-roll” avictim with a pelvicfracture.

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Burns

D.14. General Burns are classified by depth or degree of skin damage. The following arethe three general classifications of burns:

• First degree

• Second degree

• Third degree

D.15. Causes ofburns

NOTE $$

Causes of burns include:

• Thermal,

• Chemical,

• Sunburn,

• Electric shock, and

• Radiation.

D.16. Burnclassification

Burns can range from minor irritations to life threatening and disabling.Proper first aid, administered quickly, can minimize damage resultingfrom burns and can make the difference between life and death in serioussituations. For these reasons, it is very important that boat crew membersbe able to quickly determine the type and seriousness of burns in order totreat them quickly and properly. In general, the size of the burn is moreimportant than the degree of the burn.

D.16.a. Firstdegree

First degree burns are the mildest form of burns. These burns involve onlythe outer layer of skin and produce redness, increased warmth,tenderness, and mild pain.

D.16.b. Seconddegree

Second degree burns extend through the outer layers of the skin. Theseburns involve the inner layers of the skin, but not enough to prevent rapidregeneration. They produce blisters and are characterized by severe pain,redness, and warmth.

Burns, regardlessof the cause, maycause a person togo into shock.

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D.16.c. Thirddegree

NOTE $$

Third degree burns are those that penetrate the full thickness of the skin,destroying both the outer and inner layers. Severe pain, characteristic ofsecond degree burns, may be absent because nerve endings have beendestroyed. Color may range from white and lifeless to black (charred).Healing occurs only after many months, and results in scarring of the skintissue. Skin grafts are generally required to achieve full healing.

D.17. Burn firstaid

In order to determine roughly what percentage of a victim's body surfacearea has suffered some type of damage (burns, etc.), use the followingestimates for adult patients:

CHEST = 18%

BACK = 18%

EACH ARM = 9%

EACH LEG = 18%

HEAD = 9%

GENITALS = 1%

General first aid procedures for all burns include the following:

• Eliminate the source of the burn. Extinguish and removesmoldering clothing. Do not remove charred clothing that may besticking to the burn.

• For burns resulting from electrical shock - ensure the patient is nolonger receiving electrical shock.

• Treat to prevent or reduce shock

• Try to prevent infection

• Do not apply any type of ointment on burns

In addition to these general steps, the following are first aid proceduresfor burns that apply specifically to particular classes of burns.

Burns of the respiratory tract are very serious and may be diagnosed by singedeyelashes, hoarseness, sore throat, or coughing of blood.

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D.17.a. Firstdegree

Minor burns: immerse in cool water until pain is relieved. Flush chemicalburns for a least 20 minutes. Cover with clean or sterile air tight wrap.Plastic food wrap applied over a clean or sterile dressing can be used toreduce air exposure.

D.17.b. Seconddegree

Use the same treatment as for first degree burns. Do not break open anyblisters. Cover with a dry, sterile, non adhesive dressing.

D.17.c. Thirddegree

For third degree, or deep, second degree burns:

• Cover the burn to reduce exposure to air.

• Cool the burn.

• Do not remove clothing unless smoldering.

• Treat for shock even if not apparent.

• Always obtain medical care.

• Monitor the patients airway.

• Assess vital signs every 5 minutes.

• Give nothing to eat or drink.

• Do not place ice on the burn.

• Do not apply ointments to the burn.

• Burns of the respiratory tract are always a medical emergency.

D.18. Chemicalburns

Chemical burns of the skin or eyes produce the same type of burn as flashfires, flames, steam, or hot liquids.

D.18.a. First aid First aid for this type of burn is to wash the chemical away completely, asquickly as possible, using large quantities of water. Continue flushing theburn for at least 20 minutes.

When the burn involves an eye, flush the eye with water for five minutes.Then, cover both eyes with a clean, dry, protective dressing and seekmedical attention as quickly as possible. Give first aid for shock.

If the chemical is a powder, brush off as much as possible before flushingwith water.

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Section E. Environmental Injuries

Overview

Introduction Environmental injuries occur when an individual suffers from over-exposure to extreme environmental elements or when taking poorprecautions for activity in environmental elements. In severe cases,environmental injuries can cause permanent damage or loss of life. Thesetypes of injuries include emergencies caused by heat or cold such as heatstroke or hypothermia.

Additionally, these injuries are not only limited to environmentalconditions but include other environmental factors such as injuriesinflicted by non-human predators of the habitat. In the marine habitat,environmental injuries include those inflicted by aquatic life.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageEmergencies Caused by Heat 5-48Emergencies Caused by Cold 5-51Hypothermia 5-53Near-drowning 5-58Fish Bites and Stings 5-59

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Emergencies Caused by Heat

E.1. Heat Excessive heat or prolonged exposure to heat can cause at least threetypes of emergencies:

• Heat Cramps

• Heat Exhaustion

• Heat Stroke

E.2. Heat cramps Heat cramps are painful contractions of various skeletal muscles. Theyare caused by depletion of salts from body fluids, normally due toexcessive sweating.

E.2.a. Symptoms Heat cramps affect the muscles of the extremities and of the abdominalwall. Pain may be severe. Body temperature may be normal or elevated.

E.2.b. Treatment

NOTE $$

The treatment for heat cramps is drinking cool fluids that affords bothrelief and continued protection, “sport” drinks may speed up recovery. Donot re-expose to heat for at least 12 hours.

E.3. Heatexhaustion

Heat exhaustion results from too much fluid loss by perspiration. Eventhe most physically fit person can fall victim to heat exhaustion whileworking in a hot environment. With proper treatment heat exhaustion isseldom fatal.

E.3.a. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion are similar to those of shock.An individual that collapses in the heat and continues to perspire freelyalmost surely has heat exhaustion. The presence of sweating usually rulesout heat stroke.

The use of hot packs on cramped muscles will only make the situation worse. DONOT administer salt tablets for heat cramps!

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E.3.b. Treatment To treat a person with heat exhaustion:

• Remove the patient from the hot environment to a cool location.

• Place a patient on his or her back, with legs elevated.

• Cool a patient but DO NOT chill.

• If the victim is conscious, administer cool sips of water or sportsdrink.

• Treat for shock.

• If equipped and trained, administer oxygen.

With general supportive treatment, a victim of heat exhaustion will usuallyrecover consciousness promptly, although the person may not feel wellfor some time. Do not re-expose to heat for at least 24 hours.

E.4. Heat stroke Heat stroke is a serious medical emergency. The most important sign ofheat stroke is an extreme elevation of body temperature, indicating failureof the body’s sweating mechanism. Heat stroke calls for immediatemeasures to reduce body temperatures in order to prevent brain damageand/or death.

E.4.a. Symptoms The symptoms of heat stroke are:

• headache,

• dizziness,

• irritability, and

• disturbed vision.

A person will suddenly become unconscious, have hot, dry skin, andcontracted pupils. A heat stroke victim will also have a full pulse, strongand bounding, may have convulsions, and a body temperature that rangesfrom 105o to 109oF.

E.4.b. Treatment To treat a person with heat stroke:

• Seek help and activate the local EMS.

• Place the patient in the shade or a cool place. Assess breathing andcirculation, loosen clothing, and lay the victim down with the headand shoulders slightly elevated.

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NOTE $$ • Begin the movement of air by fanning with a shirt, electric fan orother means.

• Reduce the body temperature as rapidly as possible to preventbrain damage. Total immersion in an ice water bath is probably themost efficient method. If this is not possible, decrease the patient'sbody temperature by pouring cool or cold water over the body,rubbing the body with ice and placing pieces of ice in the armpits,or covering the patient with sheets soaked in ice water.

• DO NOT give anything by mouth.

• Treat for shock.

Carry out theseprocedures whileseekingadditionalmedicalassistance.

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Emergencies Caused by Cold

E.5. Cold injuries The type and severity of cold injuries depends on the temperature andamount of exposure an individual has endured. Refer to the table belowfor a description of various cold injury causes and symptoms.

Injury Cause SymptomsChilblains Repeated exposure for several

hours at a time to temperaturesbetween 32° and 60°F, generallyassociated with high humidity.

Signs and symptoms include: redness andswelling, itching dermatitis, tingling, anddeep aches in later stages.

ImmersionFoot

Exposure to cold water 50°F andbelow for 12 hours or more, orexposure to water ofapproximately 70°F for severaldays.

Signs and symptoms include: swelling of thelegs and feet, cyanosis (a bluishdiscoloration, especially of the skin due to alack of properly oxygenated blood),numbness, tingling, itching, blisters, intenseburning pain, and neuromuscular changes.

Trench Foot Exposure to cold between 32°and 50°F, damp weather forperiods ranging from severalhours to 14 days. The averagelength of exposure to producesymptoms is three days. Thebody part affected blanches,tingles, then becomes numb.

Signs and symptoms include: swelling of thelegs and feet, cyanosis, blisters, intenseburning pain, and neuromuscular changes.

Frostbite Generally, brief exposure toextreme cold -20°F and below,or exposure to approximately0°F weather for several hourswill cause frostbite.

Signs and symptoms include: first burningand stinging then numbness, ice crystals inthe skin which cause white or gray waxycolor, skin moves over bony prominences,edema (excessive accumulation of fluidswithin portions of the body), blisters, pain,loss of motion, and gangrene and loss oftissue in later stages

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Injury Cause SymptomsFreezing Caused by exposure of skin to

temperatures of -20°F andbelow. May happen rapidly toexposed toes and fingers withother extremities involved asexposure is prolonged.

Signs and symptoms include: ice crystals inentire thickness of the body part, includingbone, which is indicated by pallid, yellowwaxy color, skin will not move over bonyprominences. After thawing, edema, largeblisters, intense pain, loss of motion; andgangrene and loss of the body part in laterstages.

E.6. Treatment When treating cold injuries:

NOTE $$Dos DON’Ts

• Take care when removingclothing or gear so as notto injure the numbed skin.Remove only if blankets ordry clothing are available.

• Cover the area with a drydressing and warm with ablanket.

• Exercise care to preventinfection if open sores arepresent.

• Under the supervision of amedical professional,rapidly warm a frostbittenbody part in a controlledtemperature water bath(105° to 110°F). Attemptthis only where there is acertainty of the watertemperature.

• Transport the patient to anappropriate medical facilityas soon as possible.

• Monitor for shock.

• DO NOT place anythingconstricting on the affected area.

• DO NOT give the victim alcohol ortobacco.

• DO NOT massage or rub theaffected parts.

• DO NOT break blisters.• DO NOT thaw an affected part if

the transport time is short or if thereis a possibility that the body partmay refreeze after warming.

• Do NOT give alcohol.

Never treat coldinjuries lightly!Tissue loss andnerve damage arecaused by thesetype of injuries.

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Hypothermia

E.7. General Hypothermia is a lowering of a person’s core temperature. It occurswhen a person suffers a loss of body heat. General body hypothermia isthe leading cause of death among survivors of shipwrecks, and otherdisasters at sea. If not recognized and treated promptly, hypothermia canrapidly turn survivors into fatalities. Survivors in critical hypothermiaconditions may suffer a fatal loss of body temperature from physicalexertion, or as a result of any delay in taking immediate and positivemeasures to restore body heat. Struggling survivors, trying to aid in theirown rescue, may drive their body temperature down to the point whereunconsciousness and/or death results. Survivors removed from the waterand left untreated may suffer further critical loss in body temperature,bringing on death after being rescued. Note that survivors in "warm"water can also suffer from hypothermia if exposed for long enoughperiods of time. Also, cold air temperatures can bring on hypothermia ifadequate protective clothing is not worn.

E.8. Survivability Survival times in water vary considerably. Survival depends on the type ofclothing worn, the amount of physical exertion, the blood alcohol levels,and other factors. Some survivors, when taken aboard during a search andrescue case, may appear to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Aperson moderately hypothermic will manifest symptoms of an intoxicatedperson.

E.9. Symptomsand signs

When a victim may be suffering from hypothermia, there are symptomsthat are visible and some that must be measured to establish a diagnosis.These include:

• low body temperature

• low blood pressure

• slow, weak pulse

• unconsciousness

• general appearance

• cold skin

• may simulate or accompany shock

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Signs may include:

• skin is cold

• shivering

• clouded mental capacity (may seem disoriented)

• breathing slow and labored

• pulse weak and slow, may be irregular or absent

• pupils dilated

• • speech slurred (may seem intoxicated)

E.9.a Bodytemperature

Body temperature is the most useful yardstick for identifyinghypothermia. Hypothermia victims will have a rectal temperature belownormal (normal is 98°F-99°F). Only rectal temperatures are of value,since it is the body's core temperature that determines the severity ofhypothermia. Neither oral or auxiliary temperatures, nor the temperaturesof the extremities, reflect core temperature. DO NOT attempt to takerectal temperatures in the field. Treat the patient as visible signs andsymptoms suggest.

Temperature Visible Signs and Symptoms99°-96° F Intense uncontrollable shivering; impaired ability to

perform complex tasks.95°-91° F Violent shivering; difficulty speaking; sluggish

movements; amnesia begins.

NOTE $$ 90°-86° F Shivering is replaced by muscular rigidity; musclecoordination impaired; erratic movements.

85°-81° F Irrational; stupor; lost contact with surroundings; pulseand respiration slow.

80°-78° F No response to words; reflexes stop working; heartbeatis erratic; victim loses consciousness.

Below 78° F Failure of heart and lungs; internal bleeding; death.

E.9.b. Bloodpressure

Hypothermia victims may have a lower than normal blood pressure(normal is about 120/80).

The leadingcause of death incold watermaritimeaccidents ishypothermia.

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E.9.c. Visiblesymptoms

These are outwardly visible symptoms that can help to identifyhypothermia victims:

• Slow, weak, and often irregular, pulse.

• Level of consciousness becomes clouded as their bodytemperature approaches 90oF and they generally loseconsciousness at 85oF.

• Pale in appearance, with constricted pupils, and slow andlabored respiration. Violent shivering or muscular rigiditymay be present. Victims may appear to be intoxicated.

Begin treatment if a victim's skin feels cold to the touch.

E.10. Rescueprecautions

When it is suspected a survivor has critical hypothermia, make rescueattempts that avoid rough handling and minimize the amount of exertionby a victim. This can be accomplished by sending a surface swimmer intothe water to assist the survivor into the rescue craft. Take care to handle avictim gently. Excessive movement may cause heart beat irregularitieswhich can be fatal. During the rescue and afterwards, keep a patient calmand quiet. DO NOT allow a person to perform any physical activity otherthan what is absolutely necessary. Exertion can use up large amounts ofbody heat which would otherwise be available to raise the survivor'sinternal body temperature.

E.11. Basictreatment

Treatment for hypothermia will depend on both the condition of asurvivor and the facilities available for treating the victim. Survivors whoare rational and capable of recounting their experiences, althoughshivering dramatically, will generally require only that all wet clothes beremoved and dry clothes or blankets and a warm environment be providedfor resting.

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E.12. Advancedtreatment

In more serious cases, where victims are semiconscious or near death,contact a medical facility as soon as possible for detailed instructions forproper care and handling. While awaiting medical instructions,immediately administer first-aid to survivors using these steps:

Step Procedure1 After recovering a victim from the cold, avoid rough handling of

the victim as this can cause further harm. Check for the presenceof breathing and heartbeat. If the victim is not breathing and hasno heart beat, begin CPR immediately. If the victim is breathing,and has a pulse, gently transfer the person to a warmenvironment. Be sure to check the person's breathing and heartbeat frequently. always remain prepared to immediately beginCPR if breathing and heart beat stop. Activate EMS. Do notminimize, always obtain medical help.

2 Lay an unconsciousness or semiconscious victim face up with thehead slightly lower than the rest of the body. If vomiting occurs,turn the patient's head to one side. Observe respiration closelyand remove any secretions from a victim's nose and mouth.

3 Remove a victim's clothes with minimum movement of the body.Cut the clothes away with scissors or a knife if necessary. If apatient cannot be removed to a compartment to be warmed withblankets, dry clothing, or other warming methods, then DO NOTremove wet clothing. Under these circ*mstances, the wetclothing is better than no clothing.

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Step ProcedureCAUTION ! 4 Give nothing orally. Giving alcohol as a treatment for

hypothermia victims is not recommended because it furtherrestricts circulation.

5 Insulate a victim from further heat loss by wrapping the person ina blanket. DO NOT attempt to aggressively rewarm anunconscious or semiconscious victim, as rapid warming can causedangerous complications. DO NOT rub frozen body areas. Avictim will be very sensitive to rough handling. The primaryobjective after a person has been removed from the water is toprevent the person from getting colder.

WARNING II

6 If properly trained and equipped, administer warm, humidifiedoxygen by face mask. The oxygen will not only assist victims ifthey are having difficulty breathing or have a low respiratory rate,it will also provide rewarming of the internal body core.

7 When there will be a delay getting a victim to a hospital, begingentle rewarming techniques. Rewarming techniques include:

• Wrapping the victim in a blanket. Under the blanket, applyheating pads or hot water bottles (if available) to the victim'shead, neck and groin.

• Applying your body warmth by direct body-to-body contactwith a victim. A blanket should be wrapped around you andthe victim to preserve the heat.

8 Treat for shock. Be alert to the ABC's of shock treatment.9 Evacuate a victim to a medical facility soon after or during

emergency treatment. A medical phone patch can be set upthrough the Coast Guard station if needed. A helicopter with anEMT can be sent to provide help and to evacuate a victim.

Semiconscious orunconsciouspersons shouldnot be givenanything to eat ordrink.

Hypothermiapatients are veryprone to burns.Hot packs, heatingpads, and hotwater bottlesmay cause thirddegree burns andmust beadministered withextreme care.

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Near-drowning

E.13. General Victims who inhale water or who are found floating face-down in thewater may be suffering from near-drowning. Medical researchers haveonly recently discovered the phenomena of the "mammalian diving reflex."In this condition, a person immersed in water (particularly a child), evenunder ice, could still be alive. Even after extended periods of time, thebody delivers a tiny trickle of oxygen to the brain. A victim also exhibits analmost complete constriction of all peripheral blood vessels. Theirrespiration and circulation almost stop. Properly administered CPR maysuccessfully revive a near-drowning victim without serious complications,even after being underwater for an hour or longer.

E.14. Treatment To treat a person in a near-drowning situation:

• Evaluate A,B, Cs

• Identify any other injuries

• Activate EMS

• Initiate CPR if indicated and trained

• Treat for shock

• Inform station of status of victim

• Transport as soon as possible

• Remove we clothing

• Treat for hypothermia as appropriate

• Constantly monitor the victim’s airway

• Reevaluate victims vital signs every 5 minutes

• Document

– length of submersion

– water temperature

– fresh or salt water

– drug or alcohol use

– any treatment rendered

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Fish Bites and Stings

E.15. General Fish bites and stings are another common problem encountered by boatcrews during rescues. They can range from innocuous to deadly and boatcrew members must be constantly alert to identify bites and stings asquickly as possible.

E.16. Types ofbites and stings

Victims may suffer many different types of bites and stings. The typesencountered will depend in a large part on the area of operations and thesea life that exists there. It is important that to become familiar with themost common types of bites and stings that are encountered and the propertreatments for them.

E.17. Effects andtreatment

The table below describes the effects and proper treatment for various fishbites/stings encountered.

Bite/Sting Effects TreatmentShark & BarracudaBites

Shark and barracuda bitesgenerally result in loss of largeamounts of tissue. Prompt andvigorous action to controlhemorrhage and shock arerequired to save a victim's life.

Control bleeding with pressuredressings, if possible. If not, usepressure points or tourniquets. Seekmedical help immediately.

Fish Stings Fish sting symptoms include:• burning,• stinging,• redness,• swelling,• rash,• blisters,• abdominal cramps,• numbness,• dizziness,• and shock.

Individuals extremely sensitive to fishstings may rapidly go into shock andrequire immediate evacuation to savetheir life.

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Bite/Sting Effects TreatmentPortuguese Man-of-War & Jellyfish

Jellyfish sting symptomsinclude burning, stinging,redness, and jelly-like matterfrom tentacles stuck on thebody

For Portuguese Man-of-War andjellyfish stings, remove all tentaclesimmediately and wash the surface of theskin with alcohol. Apply calaminelotion, meat tenderizer, or ammoniawater to neutralize the effects of thetoxin contained in the tentacles.

Stingray Injuries Stingray injuries typically havea small open wound withswelling.

• Immediately irrigate the wound froma stingray with cold salt water. Mostof the toxins will wash out and thecold water will reduce the pain.

• Immerse the wounded area in hotwater for 30 to 60 minutes. Keepthe water as hot as a patient cantolerate without injury.

• Apply hot compresses to wounds inareas not lending themselves tocomplete immersion.

• Apply a sterile dressing after thesoak.

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Section F. Miscellaneous Emergencies

Overview

Introduction Boat crew member will face a variety of emergencies that will requireperforming first aid. This section discusses miscellaneous emergenciesthat boat crew members will encounter aboard their own vessel or whendealing with marine casualties.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageCarbon Monoxide Poisoning 5-62Poisoning by Mouth 5-63Eye Injuries 5-64

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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

F.1. General Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless toxic gas that is theproduct of incomplete combustion. Motor vehicles, heater andappliances that use carbon based fuels are the main sources of thispoison.

F.2. Signs andsymptoms

Can include headache, dizziness, fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, nausea,vomiting, loss of consciousness, skin pallor, shortness of breath onexertion, palpitation, confusion, irritability and irrational behavior.

F.3. Treatment Removal from the CO containing atmosphere. Treat for shock.Administer Oxygen as available and trained to do so. Start CPR asappropriate.

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Poisoning by Mouth

F.4. General When poisoning occurs, it is vital that proper first aid be givenimmediately.

F.5. Seekingadvice

The product container will often include specific treatment instructions. Ifnot, seek medical assistance immediately. The boat crew should contactit* unit, provide information about substance taken and an estimate of thequantity taken and have the unit immediately contact the local poisoncontrol center . Take the container and any samples of vomit with a victimwhen transporting to a medical facility.

F.6. Medicalassistance notavailable

If medical advice is not immediately available and the patient is conscious,determine if the poison is a strong acid, alkali, or petroleum product. Ifthis is the case, do not attempt to induce vomiting by applying pressure tothe back of a victim's tongue. Do Not induce vomiting if patient is notfully conscious.

F.7. Treatment

CAUTION !

Closely observe the ABC's for shock treatment during transport.

Determine if the victim shows signs of a sensitivity reaction to the substance. Thiswill indicate a victim in anaphylactic shock. In this case, treat the victimaccordingly (Refer to Section B, “Treatment for Shock”.)

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Eye Injuries

F.8. General Eye injuries are potentially serious, and may be permanent, unless handledpromptly and properly. Eyes should be moist. Any dressing applied toeyes should also be moist to prevent excessive drying.

Eye movement is conjugal, that is if one eye moves, the other also movesin the same manner. When dealing with a penetrating injury to an eye, or aforeign object in an eye, the objective is to limit eye movement. Becauseof conjugal movement, this is best accomplished by covering both eyes. Inmost cases, a patient with an eye injury is transported sitting up.

F.9. Blindness Patients who have experienced a blinding injury become totally dependentupon their rescuer. Never leave these patients alone. Keep in constantcontact and talk with them continuously to reduce anxiety.

F.10. Types of eyeinjuries

There are many injuries that may occur to a victim's eyes. Any eye injuryis normally the cause of great anxiety for a victim, many times causingmore concern than more serious injuries to other parts of the body. As aboat crew member, keep this thought in mind while rescuing or treatingvictims.

F.11. Symptomsand treatments

The following table describes the symptoms and appropriate treatmentsfor the various eye injuries.

Eye Injury Symptom TreatmentBlunt Eye Trauma Blows to a victim's head and

eye area may result in afracture to the orbit (thebony socket encircling theeye), entrapping vessels andnerves to the eye.

Managing such injuries requires coveringboth eyes with a moist dressing. This isimportant since movement by anuninjured eye is mimicked by the injuredeye. Refer the patient to medical care forfollow up. Since this injury may involve ahead injury, closely observe the patientfor signs of further damage.

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Eye Injury Symptom TreatmentPenetrating Objectsand Foreign Bodies

Common objects includefish hooks, wood splinters,or pieces of glass.

Any object that has penetrated the eyemust NOT be removed as first aidtreatment. Cover both eyes with a moistdressing, and support the object if itprotrudes to prevent movement. Aprotective cup for the eye can be madefrom a plastic or styrofoam cup tapedover the eye, with a moist dressing inside.Immediately refer this patient for furthermedical care.

Caustics, Acids orBurns

Symptoms may includeremains of the substanceitself, pain, swelling,discoloration of the skin,peeling of skin, and blisters.

Immediately flush both eyes with largequantities of gently flowing water. Eacheye should be flushed with water for aminimum of 10-15 minutes away fromthe unaffected eye. Never use aneutralizing agent for flushing, use onlyplain tap water. A moist dressing may behelpful. After flushing, refer the patientfor further care.

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Chapter 6: SurvivalEquipment andPyrotechnics

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

The danger of falling overboard, capsizing, or sinking is always present.Few people can stay alive for long in the water without some type ofsurvival equipment. Fear, fatigue, and exposure are the enemies of watersurvival. The desire to live, think clearly, and proficiently use availableequipment make the difference between life and death. The boatcoxswain has overall responsibility for the safety of the boat and crew —that all required safety equipment is on board, readily accessible, inworking condition, and its use and operation understood by all.However, each boat crew member has the personal responsibility to stayalert and knowledgeable in these matters. This chapter addresses thecharacteristics and use of survival gear and signaling devices, includingpyrotechnics.

In this chapter These items are discussed in this chapter:

Section Topic See PageA Personal Flotation Device (PFD) 6-3B Hypothermia Protective Clothing 6-17C Headgear 6-27D Boat Crew Signal Kit 6-29E Personnel Survival Kit 6-41F Pyrotechnics 6-43G Rescue and Survival Raft 6-47H Emergency Procedures in the Event of Capsizing 6-53

For specific policies,guidance, andtechnicalinformationconcerningconfiguration,application,stowage, andmaintenance ofsurvival equipmentdiscussed in thischapter, refer to theCoast Guard Rescueand SurvivalSystems Manual,COMDTINSTM10470.10 (series).

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Section A. Personal Flotation Device (PFD)

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

The term “personal flotation device” (PFD) is a general name for thevarious types of devices designed to keep you afloat in water. PFDsinclude life preservers, vests, cushions, rings, and other throwable items.They are available in five different types: Type I, II, III, IV and V. Eachtype of PFD provides a certain amount of flotation.

Regardless of the type, all PFDs must be Coast Guard approved, meaningthey comply with Coast Guard specifications and regulations relating toperformance, construction, and materials. A usable PFD is labeled CoastGuard approved, in good serviceable condition, and of appropriate sizefor the intended user. Each boat crew member must wear a usable PFDand signal kit.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageType I PFD 6-4Type II PFD 6-6Type III PFD 6-7Type IV PFD 6-9Type V PFD 6-10PFD Storage and Care 6-11PFD Survival Equipment 6-12Standard Navy Preserver 6-15

A wearable PFD cansave you’re life, butonly if you wear it.

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Type I PFD

A.1 General The Type I PFD, or “off-shore life jacket,” is a one-piece, reversible PFDintended primarily for use by survivors, passengers on towed vessels, orprisoners aboard vessels. A Type I PFD provides an unconscious personthe greatest chance of survival in the water. The Type I PFD is the onlywearable device required to be reversible. It comes in two sizes, an adultsize (90 pounds and over) which provides at least 20 pounds of buoyancyand a child size (less than 90 pounds) which provides at least 11 poundsof buoyancy, and must be international orange in color.

A.2. Advantages Type 1 PFD is effective for all waters, especially open, rough, or remotewaters where rescue may be delayed. It is designed to turn mostunconscious wearers in the water from a face-down position to a verticalor slightly backward position, allowing the wearer to maintain thatposition and providing at least 20 pounds of buoyancy. This buoyancywill allow you to relax and save energy while in the water, thus extendingyour survival time.

A.3.Disadvantages

NOTE $$

There are three major disadvantages to this type of PFD:

• Bulky and it restricts movement.

• Its buoyancy restricts the underwater swimming ability you mayneed to escape from a capsized boat or to avoid burning oil orother hazards on the surface of the water.

• Minimal protection against hypothermia.

A.4. Donning

WARNING II

Before entering the water, don and adjust a Type I PFD using thefollowing steps:

Step Procedure1 Grasp the PFD at the lower part of head opening and pull

outward to expand opening.2 Slip your head through opening.3 Pass the body strap around your back and fasten at the front of

the PFD, then adjust the strap for a snug fit.

This type of PFD is notrecommended for useby boat crews because itrestricts mobility.

For safety, alwaystuck all loosestraps into yourpockets, shirt, orbelt. Adjust strapson injured peoplebefore they arelowered into thewater.

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A.5. Entering thewater

NOTE $$

Use the following procedures to enter the water.

Step Procedure1 Ensure all straps on the PFD are securely fastened, tightened to

a snug fit, and tucked in to prevent them from snagging.2 Stand on the boat’s gunwale, on the windward side, at a point

closest to the water.3 Fold your arms across your chest and grip the PFD with your

fingers. This will prevent the PFD from riding-up and strikingyour chin or neck.

4 Keep your body erect and legs held together and crossed whenentering the water. It is better to gently slip in, if possible,rather than jumping.

5 If you must jump into water with chemicals, oil, or burning oilon the surface, place one hand over your mouth with the palmunder your chin and split fingers tightly squeezing your nostrilsshut. Place your other hand on the PFD collar to keep it inplace.

Follow these steps before entering the water wearing any type of PFD orcombination of cold weather protective device (e.g., dry suit) and PFD.

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Type II PFD

A.6. General The Type II PFD, also known as a “near-shore buoyant vest,” is awearable device that will turn some unconscious wearers to a face-upposition in the water. It comes in different colors and in three categories:

• adult (more than 90 pounds) which provides at least 15.5 poundsof buoyancy;

• child, medium (50 to 90 pounds) which provides at least 11pounds of buoyancy ; and

• • infant (available in two sizes, less than 50 pounds and less than 30pounds) which provides at least 7 pounds of buoyancy.

A.7. Advantages This type is usually more comfortable to wear than the Type I. It isusually the preferred PFD if there is a chance of a quick rescue, such aswhen other boats or people are nearby.

A.8.Disadvantages

The turning characteristic of the Type II is not as strong as with a Type Ibecause of a lesser amount of flotation material, and therefore, undersimilar conditions, will not be as effective in turning a person to a face-upposition.

A.9. Donning Before entering the water, don and adjust a Type II PFD using thefollowing steps:

Step Procedure1 Grasp the PFD at the lower part of head opening and pull outward

to expand opening.2 Slip your head through opening.3 Pass the body strap around your back and fasten at the front of the

PFD, then adjust the strap for a snug fit.4 Secure the chest tie with a bow knot for a snug fit.

A.10. Enteringthe water

To enter the water while wearing a Type II PFD, follow the instructionsin paragraph A.5. above.

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Type III PFD

A.11. General The Type III PFD, also known as a “flotation aid,” is routinely wornaboard boats when freedom of movement is required, the risk of fallingover the side is minimal, and the water temperature is greater than15°C/60°F. It is not designed to turn an unconscious wearer to a face-upposition; the design is such that conscious wearers can place themselves ina vertical or slightly backward position. It has a minimum of 15.5pounds of buoyancy and comes in many sizes and colors. Figure 6-1shows the Type III PFD vest that boat crews are authorized to wear.Most approved flotation coats (“float coats”) are also Type III PFDs.

Type III PFD VestFigure 6-1

A.12. Advantages Type III PFD offers boat crew members greater comfort and freedom ofmovement. It is designed so wearers can place themselves in a face-upposition in the water. The Type III PFD allows greater wearing comfortand is particularly useful when water skiing, sailing, hunting from a boat,or other water activities.

A.13.Disadvantages

There are some disadvantages in the Type III PFD:

• Flotation characteristics are marginal and not suitable for wear inheavy seas

• • Tendency to ride-up on the wearer in the water

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WARNING II

• Wearer may have to tilt head back to avoid a face-down positionin the water

• While the Type III has the same amount of buoyancy material asthe Type II PFD, the distribution of the flotation material in aType III reduces or eliminates the turning ability.

A.14. Donning Before entering the water, don and adjust a Type III PFD using thefollowing steps:

Step Procedure1 Place your arms through the openings in the vest.2 Close zipper, if provided. Close front slide fasteners.3 Adjust waist straps for a snug fit.

The Type III PFD will not provide an adequate level of buoyancy when wornwith a full complement of law enforcement gear. If unable to remain afloat,jettison easily accessible equipment.

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Type IV PFD

A.15. General The Type IV PFD is a Coast Guard approved device that is thrown to aperson in the water and is grasped by the user until rescued. The mostcommon Type IV devices are buoyant cushions and ring buoys. Buoyantcushions come in many different colors. Ring buoys must be white ororange in color. One of the disadvantages of the Type IV PFD is that it isnot worn, although some can be secured to the body once reached in thewater.

Life RingFigure 6-2

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Type V PFD

A.16. General Type V PFDs are also known as “Special Use Devices.” They areintended for specific activities and may be carried instead of another PFDonly if used according to the approval condition on the label. Forexample, a Type V PFD designed for use during commercial white-waterrafting will only be acceptable during commercial rafting; it is notacceptable for other activities unless specified on the label. Examples ofType V PFDs are: the Coast Guard work vest with unicellular foam pads,sailboard PFDs with harness, “thermal protective” PFDs (decksuits/exposure suits), and hybrid inflatable PFDs.

A.17.Hypothermiaprotection

Some Type V devices provide significant hypothermia protection. Pleaserefer to Section C. for more information on the antiexposure coverall.

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PFD Storage and Care

A.18. Storage Despite the mildew inhibitor treatment required for PFDs, stowing themin moist, damp lockers will increase deterioration of the fabric because ofmildew. Remember, heat, moisture, and sunlight will increase thedeterioration of the parts of PFDs. Therefore, store PFDs in a cool, dryplace out of direct sunlight. A “dry” area is considered any suitable areawhere water will not condense on a PFD. All PFDs should be kept awayfrom oil, paint, and greasy substances. Remember, more important thantheir storage condition is that they are readily accessible. The CoastGuard does not consider any PFD “readily accessible” if it is kept in itsoriginal wrapper. Persons under stress may be unable to get them outpromptly. Also, the wrapper can trap moisture leading to mildew and rot.

A.19. Care If a PFD requires cleaning, wash it in fresh, warm water with a milddetergent. Then rinse the PFD in clean, fresh water.

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PFD Survival Equipment

A.20. General PFD survival equipment is attached to a PFD to provide a means ofsignaling a position from the surface of the water using sight and soundsignals.

A.21. Standardoutfitting

NOTE $$

All PFDs in service shall be outfitted with two accessories:

• Whistle secured to the PFD with a lanyard

• Distress signal light (battery operated strobe light OR thePersonnel Marker Light (PML) chemical light) secured to thePFD.

The requirement for a whistle and a distress signal light may be waived ifthe PFD is worn in conjunction with the Boat Crew Signal Kit.

A.22. PersonnelMarker Light(PML)

CAUTION !

A PML is a device that uses either battery or chemical action to providelight for the wearer to be seen during darkness. The yellow-green light ofa PML is visible for a distance of approximately one mile on a clear nightand lasts as long as eight hours. It is the only chemical light approved foruse as a distress signal light on a PFD. A certified PML complies withregulation 46 CFR 161.012 (Coast Guard approved). Large marinesupply houses carry Coast Guard approved PMLs. They are specificallydesigned to be attached to a PFD without damaging or interfering withthe PFD’s performance. The PML’s hard plastic sleeve protects the glassampules inside the tube from breakage and deterioration from the effectsof light. There are three steps needed to activate the PML:

Step Procedure1 Squeeze the handle to break the glass vials of activating chemical

compounds suspended inside the tube.2 Remove the black sleeve.3 Squeeze the handle again if the PML does not light.

Auxiliary PFDsurvival equipmentrequirements are inthe AuxiliaryOperations PolicyManual,COMDTINSTM16798.3 (series).

The PML replacesonly the distresssignal light that isrequired to beattached to all PFDsin service. It doesnot replace thedistress signal light(SDU-5/E or CG-1strobe) that boatcrew members arerequired to carry intheir boat crewsignal kit.

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CAUTION !

The intensity of the PML’s light signal in cold weather (below 0°C/32°F)is reduced. In colder temperatures, the light will last longer, but will nothave the same brilliance as in warmer conditions. Units that consistentlyoperate in temperatures below 0°C/32°F shall use distress signal lights inplace of PMLs.

NOTE $$

NOTE $$

A.23.Retroreflectivematerial

The Coast Guard attaches retroreflective material on all PFDs for bettervisibility in the dark. All Auxiliarists are required to use retroreflectivematerial on their PFDs. It is a very simple, but effective, addition to thesafety effort. Use a Coast Guard approved reflective material.Instructions for applying this are usually found on the retroreflectivematerial packaging.

There is a seal at one end of the PML which holds the protective sleeve in place.If this seal is broken, replace the PML immediately.

Most batteries or chemicals have a useful shelf life of about two years. Therefore,check PMLs for the expiration date (located somewhere on the device) to find outwhen replacement is in order.

The time period a chemical light provides effective illumination depends upon itsage and the temperature. A recently purchased light stick used in 21-27°C/70-80°Ftemperatures (ideal conditions) will provide 8 to 12 hours of light. As the devicegets older, its effective period is considerably less.

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Personnel Marker Light (PML)Figure 6-3

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Standard Navy Preserver

A.24. Generalcharacteristics

The Standard Navy Preserver, although not Coast Guard approved, is acommon PFD used by the naval services. This preserver is one of the bestdevices for keeping a person afloat; however, its major drawback is that itrequires training to become familiar with the many straps and fasteningsused to don this device quickly and properly. Consequently, the StandardNavy Preserver is not Coast Guard approved for civilian use. AnyAuxiliarist who plans to go aboard a Coast Guard boat or cutter as crew(or passenger) should request instructions in the donning of this PFD.

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Section B. Hypothermia Protective Clothing

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

NOTE $$

Accidentally falling into cold water has two potentially lethalconsequences: drowning or hypothermia. Previously, we discussed theprotection provided by PFDs against drowning. The Coast Guardrequires active duty Coast Guard and Auxiliary crews to wearhypothermia protective clothing in heavy weather or hazardous operatingconditions (water temperature below 15°C/60°F) .The operationalcommander may waive this requirement, but only on a case-by-case basis.

Hypothermia protective clothing is designed to permit you to function incold weather and water conditions. There are four primary types used bythe Coast Guard:

• Antiexposure Coverall

• Dry Suit

• Wet Suit (surface swimmers only)

• Survival (Exposure) Suit

The survival (exposure) suit will not be discussed since it is limited to usefor crews operating in cold water when abandoning ship because it isextremely bulky and awkward to work in.

A local Coast Guard unit or district may purchase the Coast Guard’santiexposure coverall, survival, and wet suits and lend them to theAuxiliary. The descriptive information below is for those who wish topurchase their own suits.

In this section This section contains the following information.

A special typefloat coat, with aType V-approvallabel, meets thesame flotationrequirements asthe antiexposurecoverall, butprovides onlypartial coveringand less thermalprotection.

Hypothermia protective clothing shall be worn by boat crew members when thewater temperature is below 15°C/60°F.

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Topic See PageRequirements 6-19Antiexposure Coverall 6-21Dry Suit 6-23Wet Suit 6-25

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Requirements

B.1. General

NOTE $$

The unit commander may waive the requirement for hypothermiaprotective clothing for boat crew members on a case by case basis whenthe degree of risk to exposure and hypothermia is minimal (e.g., non-hazardous daylight operations in calm water). When a waiver is granted,hypothermia protective clothing must be carried on the boat. Coxswainsshall require boat crew members to don proper hypothermiaprotective clothing during heavy weather or hazardous operations(e.g., recovery of a person from the water or helicopter operations).Unit commanders are responsible for the enforcement of this policy forAuxiliary facilities under their operational control. If an Auxiliary facilityis granted a waiver, it is not required to carry protective clothing aboard.

B.2. Properclothing

CAUTION !

The best way to avoid cold related injuries is to wear proper clothing.When choosing clothing combinations, the best advice is to layer clothing.As the work effort changes or when an article of clothing becomes damp,the number of layers can be adjusted for comfort.

B.3. Maintainingbody heat

Wet clothing robs the body of heat by breaking down the thermalprotection of insulated clothing. It is extremely important to replace wetclothing as soon as possible to prevent cold related injuries, particularly ifthe person is idle after a period of heavy perspiring. Many cold weathermedical problems involve wet hands and feet. These areas should receivespecial care.

Timely rescue is a high priority when victims are in the water. When the boat hasprior knowledge of a victim in the water, the surface swimmer, if available, willdon a dry or wet suit and swimmer’s safety harness before entering the water.Coxswains of boats operating in water temperatures that dictate the use of a dry orwet suit shall ensure that the surface swimmer is correctly outfitted.

More layers of clothing reduce maneuverability which can be dangerous for boatcrew members. Also, remember to wear insulated socks and boots (withreinforced toe), hoods, face masks, goggles and gloves as required to protectyourself against the elements (see Chapter 5, Crew Efficiency Factors).

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B.4. Wearing aPFD

Boat crew members shall wear a PFD at all times with the dry suit. Crewmembers should not wear a PFD over an antiexposure coverall. (A wetsuit is not authorized for use by boat crew members - it may be worn by asurface swimmer.)

B.5. Distresssignal devices

Boat crew members shall wear the contents of the boat crew signal kit(discussed later in this Chapter) tethered to the hypothermia protectivedevice when worn. Surface swimmers wearing a dry suit or a wet suitmay carry a distress signal light and a signal whistle in lieu of the contentsof the boat crew signal kit. Wearing a PML is recommended for boatcrew members and the surface swimmer.

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Antiexposure Coverall

B.6. General Antiexposure coveralls are Type V PFD. The antiexposure coverall isthe standard garment for cold weather operations with closed co*ckpitboats (see Figure 6-4).It provides good durability and out-of-waterprotection from the elements but limited protection from hypothermia inthe water.

B.7.Characteristics

Antiexposure coveralls are constructed with a fabric cover and a closedcell foam lining. These suits provide a full range of movement and comein a variety of sizes. They provide adequate mobility and protection fromlimited exposure to outside elements such as wind and spray. Theflotation characteristics of the coverall are similar to those of the Type IIIPFD. The approved coveralls feature an orally inflated pillow for a betterflotation angle for extended periods of exposure.

B.8. Use

CAUTION !

WARNING II

Antiexposure coveralls provide hypothermia protection when the weareris only periodically exposed to conditions which cause hypothermia.When more than periodic exposure is anticipated, even on boats withclosed co*ckpits, a dry suit should be worn.

B.9. Donning Antiexposure coveralls are designed to be worn over your uniform in thesame manner as standard coveralls. For added protection, wearpolypropylene thermal underwear as a moisture wicking layer next to theskin. Also use insulated socks and boots (with reinforced toe), hoods,face masks, goggles and gloves to protect against the elements.

When wearing this type of suit, it is important to tighten all closures andadjustments before entering the water. A loose-fitting suit may allow too muchwater in and greatly reduce the thermal effectiveness of the suit leading tohypothermia.

Wearing a type I or III PFD over an antiexposure coverall may be dangerous incertain situations. The additional buoyancy may restrict the wearer’s ability toswim out from under a capsized boat. In extreme situations, where buoyancy is alimitation instead of an advantage, you may need to remove your PFD.

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B.10. Entering thewater

Before entering the water with antiexposure coveralls, follow these steps:

Step Procedure1 Ensure the zipper is completely closed.

2 Tighten straps at the neck, waist, thigh, and ankle to reducetransfer of cold water inside the suit. This increases the degree ofhypothermia protection.

3 Orally inflate the pillow behind the collar. This will providesupport for your head.

Antiexposure CoverallFigure 6-4

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Dry Suit

B.11. General

WARNING II

The dry suit shall be worn when operating open co*ckpit boats when thewater temperature is below 10°C/50°F and the air temperature is below7°C/45°F. It provides protection in areas where exposure to wind, spray,cold water, and hypothermia is likely (see Figure 6-5). The dry suit, withproper undergarments, provides the best protection for crew members inadverse weather and cold water immersion.

B.12.Characteristics

Dry suits are constructed of a trilaminate, breathable fabric. They havewatertight seals at the neck, wrist, and ankles to keep the wearer dry andare designed so that one common size will fit most adults.

B.13. Use

WARNING II

When worn with a PFD and proper undergarments, a dry suit offersmobility and superior protection against the effects of wind, spray andcold water immersion.

B.14. Donning Don a dry suit as described in the Coast Guard Rescue and SurvivalSystems Manual, COMDTINST M10470.10 (series). Multifilamentpolypropylene thermal underwear must be worn under the suit for properprotection against cold. By layering underwear, crew members achievemaximum protection from hypothermia under most conditions. A wearermay don this suit quickly and easily over regular clothing. Consequently,this suit is more bulky and loose fitting than a diver’s wet suit. PFDsmust also be worn because a dry suit has no inherent buoyancy. A drysuit is not a PFD. Surface swimmers wearing a dry suit may carry adistress signal light and a signal whistle tethered to the garment in lieu ofthe boat crew signal kit.

Dry suits provide noinherent buoyancy.A PFD must beworn over a dry suitat all times whileunderway.

Dry suits alone provide inadequate insulation or hypothermic protection. Wearthermal underwear layered underneath the dry suit. Fully close the zipper prior toentering the water. Consult the Coast Guard Rescue and Survival Systems Manual,COMDTINST M10470.10 (series) for a complete list of undergarments.

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B.15. Entering thewater

Before entering the water, follow these three steps.

Step Procedure1 Slip on a wet suit hood.2 Close all zippers and tighten all wrist and ankle straps.3 Put on gloves.

Dry SuitFigure 6-5

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Wet Suit

B.16. General The Wet suit may be worn by surface swimmers in the water. The wetsuit is not authorized for use by boat crew members. It providesprotection from exposure to cold water, but will not keep you dry. A drysuit or antiexposure coverall provides more out-of-water protection (seeFigure 6-6).

Wet Suit (typical neoprene)Figure 6-6

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B.17.Characteristics

The standard wet suit is fabricated of 3/16” neoprene foam, an elasticmaterial with high-flotation characteristics. The surface swimmer’s wetsuit ensemble consists of a custom fitted two piece farmer-john style wetsuit, a custom fitted one piece shorty wet suit, hood, gloves and boots.Refer to the Coast Guard Rescue and Survival Systems Manual,COMDTINST M10470.10 (series) for procurement and inspection.

B.18. Use

NOTE $$

Units should issue a wet suit to personnel designated as surfaceswimmers. It should be individually fitted. For added comfort andwarmth, the suit may be worn over polypropylene cold weatherunderwear. Units shall issue custom-fitted wet suits as non-returnableitems.

B.19. Donning When properly worn and with all fasteners closed, a wet suit should fitalmost skin-tight. Surface swimmers wearing a wet suit may carry adistress signal light and a signal whistle tethered to the garment in lieu ofthe boat crew signal kit.

B.20. Entering thewater

To enter the water while wearing a wet suit, follow the instructions inparagraph A.5. above for PFDs.

Wet suits are not authorized for crew members operating boats. Surfaceswimmers may wear either a dry suit or a wet suit when in the water,depending on water temperature.

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Section C. Headgear

C.1. Thermalprotection

The Navy standard wool watch cap is worn for thermal protection.However, under extreme weather conditions it offers little protection tothe face and neck. When operating in a cold environment, thepolypropylene or fleece balaclava should be worn in conjunction with thewool watch cap or protective helmet.

C.2. Protectivehelmet

NOTE $$

The wearing of helmets on boats under hazardous conditions, such asheavy weather and helicopter operations, is mandatory for Coast Guardcrews and strongly recommended for Auxiliarists. A light weightkayaker-type helmet is the best.

The use of helmets by RHIB crews is recommended for all operations.

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Section D. Boat Crew Signal Kit

Introduction The equipment in a Boat Crew Signal Kit provides crew members ameans to signal their position on the surface of the water, day or night.The Boat Crew Signal Kit shall be carried in the pockets and tethered tothe PFD, mesh survival vest, or hypothermia protective device. The kitdoes not interfere with wearing a PFD or hypothermia protective clothing.Auxiliary survival equipment requirements are in the Auxiliary OperationsPolicy Manual, COMDTINST M16798.3 (series).

In this section This section contains the following information.

Topic See PageContents 6-30Emergency Signaling Mirror 6-31Signal Whistle 6-33Smoke and Illumination Signal, MK-124 MOD 0 6-34Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 MOD 0 6-37Distress Signal Light 6-39

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Contents

D.1. Contents

NOTE $$

Boat Crew Signal Kits contain the equipment listed here, with their use,characteristics, and operation described later in this section.

Quantity Equipment1 Emergency Signaling Mirror1 Signal Whistle1 Marine Smoke and Illumination Signal1 Illumination Signal Kit1 Distress Signal Light

NOTE $$

CAUTION !

The PML is not anauthorizedsubstitute for theDistress SignalLight.

A boat coxswain is responsible for ensuring that each boat crew member wears aPFD, vest, or hypothermia protective device containing all required items.

To prevent losingsignal kit equipmentoverboard whilebeing handled, eachitem shall betethered to the vestwith a lanyard.

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Emergency Signaling Mirror

D.2. General The emergency signaling mirror is a pocket-sized mirror with a sightinghole in the center and a lanyard attached (see Figure 6-7). However, anycommon mirror is useful as an emergency signaling device.

Emergency Signaling Mirror, MK-3Figure 6-7

D.3. Use The mirror is used to attract the attention of passing aircraft, boats, orground rescue teams by reflecting light at them.

D.4.Characteristics

Light reflected in this manner can be seen at a great distance from thepoint of origin. Practice is the key to effective use of a signal mirror.

D.5. Operation Instructions for using the mirror are printed on its back. The steps belowdescribe how to properly use this accessory.

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Step Procedure1 Face a point about halfway between the sun and an object you

wish to signal.2 Reflect sunlight from the mirror onto a nearby surface such as the

raft, your hand, etc.3 Slowly bring the mirror up to eye-level and look through the

sighting hole. You will see a bright light spot, this is the aimindicator.

4 Hold the mirror near your eye and slowly turn and manipulate it sothe bright light spot is on target.

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Signal Whistle

D.6. General The whistle is a small, hand-held device that produces a loud sound whenyou blow into it (see Figure 6-8). The standard whistle is constructed ofplastic and resembles a police officer’s whistle.

Signal WhistleFigure 6-8

D.7. Use The sound produced by a whistle will attract the attention of rescuers andguide them to your location. During periods of restricted visibility, fog,and darkness, the sound it produces may be heard by rescuers before theysight your distress signal light.

D.8.Characteristics

Depending on weather conditions, a whistle’s audible sound may be heardup to 1,000 meters/1,100 yards. Any wind has the effect of carrying thesound downwind.

D.9. Operation Place the reed part of a whistle between your lips and blow. If the whistledoes not produce a distinct whistle-like tone, quickly turn the whistle overand blow the water out the bail air relief hole and try again.

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Smoke and Illumination Signal, MK-14 MOD 0

D.10. General

NOTE $$

The MK-124 MOD 0 is a pyrotechnic smoke and illumination signal usedday or night as a distress signal at sea or on land (see Figure 6-9). Oneend produces orange smoke as the day signal and the other end producesa red flare as the night signal. Because of its weight, about 8 ounces, andsize, it may be carried in a PFD, vest, antiexposure coverall, or life raft.

Smoke and Illumination Signal, MK-124 MOD 0Figure 6-9

D.11. Use

WARNING II

These signals are used to attract vessels, aircraft, and ground rescueteams daylight or nighttime. The signal may be used to indicate winddirection for helicopter hoists. It is labeled with the following operatinginstructions:

• Do not dispose of the signal until both ends have been used.

• Only when signals misfire should you dispose of them over theside. Misfires are a safety hazard if kept on board a vessel.

• When both ends of the signal have been discharged, properlydispose of it. In an actual distress situation, toss spent signals overthe side.

Auxiliary crewmembers may usecommerciallyavailable CoastGuard approvedsurvival equipmentwhile operating anAuxiliary facility.See COMDTINSTM16798.3 series forspecificrequirements.

Under nocirc*mstances shallpersonnel igniteboth ends at onetime.

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D.12.Characteristics

As mentioned above, both ends of the device produce a signal and eachend burns for about 20 seconds. The night end produces a RED FLARE(similar to a road flare) and the day end produces ORANGE SMOKE.

D.13. Operation The device has two raised bands around its circumference on its night end(flare). These beads positively identify the night end by sense of touch.Also, a label on the case identifies the day (smoke) and night (flare) endsand provides instructions for use.

After choosing which end to use, follow the operating instructions:

Step Procedure1 Remove the black rubber protective cap from the end to be

ignited.

WARNING II 2 Slide the plastic lever in the direction of the arrow until fullyextended.

3 Hold the signal downwind and overhead at a 45° angle from thehorizon over the side of the raft or away from dry debris toprevent burns from hot drippings.

WARNING II

4 Using your thumb, pull down on the extended tab to ignite signal.See Figure 6-10.

5 If the smoke signal end flames up, briefly immerse it in water orhold it against a solid object.

6 After using one end, douse in water to cool it, or if on land placeit on the ground to cool. Save the signal to use the other endwhen needed

WARNING II

WARNING II

Prior to pullinglever downward,position all fingersbelow top ofsignal.

Do not direct eitherend of a signaltoward anotherperson.

After ignition, the outer case may overheat and burn the hand. Dropping the signalon land will not decrease its effectiveness.

Do not look directly at the light of a night flare close up. The intensity of the lightscould burn your eyes.

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Operating the MK-124 MOD 0 Signal FlareFigure 6-10

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Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 MOD 0

D.14. General The Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 is a pyrotechnic that contains sevenscrew-in cartridge flares and one pencil type projector. The projector inthis kit is used to aim and fire a signal cartridge (see Figure 6-11).

Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 MOD 0Figure 6-11

D.15. Use The Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 is used to attract vessels, aircraft, andground rescue teams.

D.16.Characteristics

These signals produce a red star display at an altitude of 250-650 feet fora minimum time of 4.5 seconds. Their luminous intensity is about 12,000candle power.

D.17. Operation The following are steps for operating the MK-79.

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WARNING II Step Procedure1 Remove the bandolier and projector from the plastic envelope.2 co*ck the firing pin of the projector by moving the trigger screw

to the bottom of the vertical slot and slipping it to the right sothat it catches at the top of the angular (safety) slot.

3 Bend protective plastic tab away from signal in bandolier to allowattachment to projector.

WARNING II

WARNING II 4 Mate a signal flare with the projector and rotate clockwise untilsignal is seated.

5 Hold projector overhead with arm fully extended. The projectorshould be pointed at a slight angle away from the body.

6 While firmly gripping the projector, fire the signal by slipping thetrigger screw to the left out of the safety slot and into the firingslot.

7 If the signal fails to fire, try again twice by depressing the triggerscrew to the bottom of the firing slot with the thumb andreleasing it quickly. If it still fails to fire, wait 30 seconds beforeunscrewing, to eliminate possibility of hang fire.

NOTE$$

WARNING II8 Unscrew the spent signal case or signal that has failed to fire.

Discard by throwing overboard.9 To fire another signal, repeat the steps above.

Failing to co*ck thefiring pin back mayresult in thecartridge firingprematurely whenattaching to theprojector.

The plastic tabs over signals in the bandolier protect percussion primerson the cartridges from being struck accidentally. They should be keptintact until just before loading into the projector.

Keep the projectile-end of the flarepointed in a safedirection whileloading the flare inthe projector.Ensure Step 2 iscompleted prior to“loading” -accidental firingmay occur ifprojector is notco*cked.

This action should be one continuous movement so that your thumbdoes not interfere with the upward motion of the trigger screw when itis brought into the firing slot. The trigger screw must “snap” upward.

Do not aim ataircraft or otherobjects.

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Distress Signal Light

D.18. General The Distress Signal Light is a lightweight, compact, battery-operatedstrobe light that emits a high intensity visual distress signal (see Figure 6-12). The strobe light model that is currently in use is the battery operatedSDU-5/E or CG-1 Strobe Light. Some lights are also Coast Guardapproved as PMLs

Distress Signal Light, CG-1Figure 6-12

D.19. Use This light is used to attract the attention of aircraft, ships, or groundparties. It is sold on the market as a rescue/anti-collision light. Crewmembers carry the distress signal light in a pocket, or attach it to a line orbelt. Keep it tethered to a garment that you are wearing.

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D.20.Characteristics

The SDU-5/E and the CG-1 distress signal lights emit approximately 50flashes per minute. At the peak of each flash, the luminous intensity is100,000 candlepower. Under continuous operation it will flash for 9hours, or 18 hours when operated intermittently. On a clear night, theDistress Signal Light has a minimum visual range of five miles. However,the range of visibility will be determined by the height of eye of theobserver. For an observer low on a boat, the range will most likely bemuch less than the advertised five miles.

D.21. Operation The following are the steps to operate the Distress Signal Light.

Step Procedure1 Turn ON. Push the switch in until a click is heard, then release.

Light should begin flashing within seconds.2 Turn OFF. Push the switch in until click is heard, then release.

The light should stop flashing.3 If you test this light and it fails to perform within operational

limits, replace the battery. If it still does not operate properly,remove it from service.

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Section E. Personnel Survival Kit

E.1. General As part of the boat outfit list, the Coast Guard requires a personnelsurvival kit to help the crew survive in hazardous situations, such as whena boat capsizes or sinks, or someone is lost overboard. The kit should bein a watertight bag that is readily available in an emergency. It includesthe boat crew signal kit (discussed earlier) and the following individualsurvival items.

• Survival Knife

• Boat Crew Signal Kit

• Visual Distress Signals

These components may also be carried or worn by the crew members.Auxiliarists may build a kit with regular marine store merchandise

E.2. Survivalknife

The survival knife is the basic tool used to free yourself from entanglinglines. It is also used to cut material blocking a path in escaping a capsizedor sinking boat. The selection of a knife is critical; your life may dependupon it. Folding knives (which may be issued by the unit to each crewmember) are convenient to carry, but may be impossible to open withgloves or with loss of fingers use due to a cold environment. Foldingknives may also lack the blade strength required in an emergency. A knifedesigned for water use such as a diver’s knife is the best choice for asurvival knife. It should be double edged, corrosion resistant, andchecked periodically for sharpness (Figure 6-13).

Survival KnifeFigure 6-13

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E.3. Boat crewsignal kit

The boat crew signal kit was discussed earlier in this Chapter. Individualitems were listed along with their use, characteristics, and operation.

E.4. Visualdistress signals

Visual distress signals include pyrotechnics and other visual signals thatmay be displayed by any vessel. Pyrotechnics are discussed in a followingsection, and distress signals in general are discussed in Chapter 11,Communications. Unit commanders will outfit boats with the requiredvisual distress signaling devices. All Auxiliary boats must carry visualdistress signaling devices that meet facility requirements.

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Section F. Pyrotechnics

F.1. General If the boat becomes disabled during a mission, its crew must have somemeans of signaling aircraft or vessels for assistance. Signaling devicesinclude pyrotechnics. The Smoke and Illumination Signal, Marine MK-124, MOD 0 and the MK 79, MOD 0 Signal Kit were discussed earlier inthis chapter under the boat crew signal kit. Additional information isprovided below. Visual distress signals in general are discussed inChapter 11, Communications.

F.2. Requirements Stowage and handling of pyrotechnics is done in accordance with theCoast Guard Ordnance Manual, COMDTINST M8000.2 (series) and theNavy publication NAVSEA SW050-AB-MMA-010. Coast Guard unitcommanders will outfit their boats with the required pyrotechnics. AllAuxiliary boats must carry visual distress signals that meet facilityrequirements. The pyrotechnic devices carried as part of their personnelsurvival kit should be small enough to be carried comfortably and be wellprotected from the elements. The following are Coast Guard approvedvisual distress signal devices typically used by the Auxiliary.

NOTE $$ CFR No.Marked on

Device

Device Description Quantity

160.021 Hand-held red flare distress signals, dayand night.

3

160.022 Floating orange smoke distress signals,day only

3

160.024 Pistol-projected parachute red flaredistress signals, day and night

3

160.037 Hand-held orange smoke distress signals,day only

3

160.057 Floating orange smoke distress signals,day only

3

160.066 Distress signal for boats, red aerialpyrotechnic flare, day and night

3

Pyrotechnic devicesshould not be useduntil a rescue craftis actually in sight.

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F.3. Parachuteilluminationsignal, MK-127A1

The Parachute Illumination Signal, MK-127A1 is a nighttime illuminationsignaling device. When fired, it climbs to an altitude of 650 to 700 feetbefore igniting. Upon ignition, it produces a parachute-suspended whitestar flare that burns for about 36 seconds with 125,000 candlepower. Thesignal descends at a rate of 10 to 15 feet per second (see Figure 6-14).

Parachute Illumination Signal, MK-127A1Figure 6-14

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F.3.a. Firinginstructions

The procedures for firing the parachute illumination signal are describedbelow.

Step Procedure1 Do not remove a signal from its sealed container until just before

use.2 Remove a signal from the container in accordance with

instructions printed on the container.3 In all handling, avoid striking the signal primer.4 Do not use signals that are dented, cracked, or otherwise

damaged.5 Hold the signal in your left hand with the RED band of the signal

FACING UP. Align your left thumb and forefinger along the redband.

6 Withdraw the firing cap from the lower end of the signal.7 Point the ejection end of the signal (the end opposite the red

knurled band) away from the body and away from other people,equipment, and materials. Slowly push the cap onto the primer(red band) end until the cap meets the edge of the knurled band.DO NOT PERMIT THE CAP TO GO BEYOND THE REDBAND.

CAUTION ! 8 Hold the signal FIRMLY at arm’s length with the left hand, withthe ejection end facing straight up. The signal should be held in avertical position (90° elevation) when firing.

9 Strike the firing cap bottom sharply with the palm of the righthand, keeping the left arm rigid and pointing straight up.

10 If a signal misfires while on land, place it in a secure position toprevent people from being hurt should the signal fire. The signalmust not be approached for at least 30 minutes. If a misfireoccurs while underway, toss it overboard.

F.3.b. Firing angles Firing a signal at angles other than a vertical position may be necessaryunder the following circ*mstances:

• To compensate for high wind velocities

• To place the signal display in a better position to be seen bysearching aircraft

Exercise due careto prevent theexpended rocketbody from fallingon people, watercraft, andstructures.

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WARNING II

WARNING IIWhen conducting SAR operations with a helicopter, extreme caution andcoordination must be used by surface units using pyrotechnics. Do not firepyrotechnics without permission and instructions from the aircraft commander.

If a signal is fired at an angle less than 90° elevation (directly overhead), thealtitude reached is reduced and the altitude of candle burnout is lessened. If thefiring angle is 60° or less, the candle will, in almost all cases, still be burning whenit strikes the surface.

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Section G. Rescue and Survival Raft

G.1. General The six person rescue and survival raft is a multipurpose raft designed forcrew survival or rescue and assistance to persons in distress. It is usuallycarried on Coast Guard boats greater than 30 feet long. The discussionhere applies to a Coast Guard procured raft but the general proceduresapply to almost any commercially available raft. The Auxiliary may usecommercially available Coast Guard approved life rafts which maytypically be less complete but still serve the same purpose. Theinstructions for use and maintenance of any life raft should always bereviewed.

G.2. Automaticinflation anddeployment

When properly stowed, this life raft is designed to automatically float freefrom it’s storage rack and inflate in the event of capsizing or sinking. Asthe raft container is released and drifts away, the inflation cable, attachedto the raft-end of the 50-foot painter line is pulled tight. When thisoccurs, the CO2 cylinder will automatically discharge and inflate the liferaft. The painter line will remain attached to the rack by a weak linkwhich requires 500 pounds of force to separate . Separation will alsooccur by heaving around on the painter line or by the stress exerted on itfrom the raft’s buoyancy if the boat sinks to a depth greater than 50 feet.

G.3. Manualdeployment

To manually deploy the rescue and survival raft, do the following steps(see Figure 6-15).

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Manual Deployment of Survival RaftFigure 6-15

Step Procedure1 Remove the raft container from its storage rack and remove the

stainless steel bands from the raft box.2 Place the raft container in the water on the leeward side of the

boat.

WARNING II 3 Completely pull the 50-foot painter line from the raft container.This will inflate the raft.

4 If practical, pull the raft alongside the boat and board the raftdirectly from the boat.

5 If time permits, take extra survival equipment and supplies aboardthe raft. Such equipment may include illumination signals,portable radios, food, water, first aid supplies, and fishing gear.

6 Untie the canopy and pull it over the support tube. Then re-tie itin the closed position.

CAUTION !

G.4. Boarding araft

Try to remain in the general area of the boat. If the boat does not sinkimmediately, leave the operating painter line attached to the raft storagerack on the boat. If the boat sinks rapidly, cut the painter line before itbreaks (at the weak link) under the strain caused when the boat goesunder.

The painter line willonly be secured tothe boat by the weaklink. Attaching thepainter line directlyto the boat couldjeopardize properdeployment of theraft, especially inwater with a depthgreater than 50 feet.

If possible, board the raft directly from the sinking vessel, avoid entering thewater.

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G.5. Tasks onboard a raft

Upon boarding a raft, complete the following tasks as soon as possible:

Step Procedure1 Account for everyone and search for survivors.2 If more than one raft is deployed, tie them together.3 Check the physical condition of all people aboard. Give first-aid

as necessary. Weather permitting, wash any oil or gasoline fromyour clothing and body. These substances will not only burn yourskin, but also pose a fire hazard. Additionally, they may betransferred from your skin to the raft, deteriorating the rubbersurfaces.

4 Salvage any floating equipment which may be useful. Inventory,stow, and secure all survival items.

5 To provide stability in moderate to heavy sea, life rafts on CoastGuard boats automatically deploy a sea anchor upon inflation.

CAUTION !6 Check the raft for proper inflation and points of possible chafing

(areas where equipment may wear a hole in the buoyancy tubes).7 Bail out any water that may have entered the raft.8 Inflate the floor immediately.9 In cold water, put on hypothermia protective clothing, if

available. Rig the entrance cover, close when necessary.10 If other people are with you, huddle together for warmth.

G.6. Conduct in araft

The safety and survival of everyone in a raft depends on clear thinkingand common sense. To protect those aboard and increase survival time,take the following steps:

Step Procedure1 Maintain a positive attitude.2 Inventory all equipment. Ration water and food. Assign lookout

and other necessary duties to crew members.3 DO NOT rely on memory. KEEP A WRITTEN LOG. Record

the time of entry into the water, names and physical condition ofsurvivors, ration schedule, winds, weather, direction of swells,times of sunrise and sunset and other navigation data.

Be careful not tosnag the raft withyour shoes or withsharp objects.

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G.7. Using a raftto rescue others

When it is impossible or too dangerous to maneuver close to a distressedvessel, the life raft may be used to ferry survivors to your boat. It mayalso be used to recover people from the water if you cannot get a boatclose enough to them. Use the following procedures when deploying alife raft during a rescue attempt (see Figure 6-16).

WARNING II

Life Raft as Rescue FerryFigure 6-16

Although the raft isballasted and verystable in most seastates, it maycapsize in largebreaking waves.For this reason,consider othermethods for rescueof people inbreaking surf orseas. (e.g.,helicopter rescue).

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Step Procedure1 Remove the raft container from its storage rack2 Do not manually or automatically inflate the life raft as you

remove the tape sealing the life raft case (half shells) together3 Roll the life raft out of the case and place it in the water on the

leeward side of the boat4 Pull the 50’ painter line from the raft container, manually inflate

the raft, and hold it alongside your boat5 Attach two lines, each of a length longer than the maximum

distance between your boat and the people in distress.6 Use one line to tend the life raft from your boat during the

evolution (NEVER LET GO OF THIS LINE)7 Pass the other line to the people in distress with a heaving line or

let the current float it down to them8 Tell the persons being assisted to haul the life raft to their

position

WARNING II 9 Once the life raft is alongside, direct the persons to board the liferaft, one person at a time.

10 If the number of people being assisted is more than the carryingcapacity of the raft, direct the people remaining to tend the lineattached to the life raft from their location; haul back themaximum number of survivors and repeat the procedure.

11 After recovering all people, deflate the raft and bring it aboardthe rescue boat. The raft may have taken on water during therescue evolution. De-ballast the raft before bringing it aboard.Use the handles located on the ballast bags and slowly lift oneside of the raft until all the water has run out.

12 Once the raft is aboard, do not repack the raft. Wash the raft andhave it repacked at a certified packing station before returning itto service.

Ensure each personis wearing a PFD.Do not permit morepeople to enter theraft than is allowedby the raft’sspecifications.

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Section H. Emergency Procedures in the Event ofCapsizing

H.1. General The key to surviving a capsize is to avoid it ever happening. If it can notbe avoided, then the crew must recognize when it could happen and beprepared. Chapter 9, Stability, Chapter 10, Boat Handling, and theHeavy Weather Addendum, all discuss situations and conditions wherecapsizing could result. These chapters also present warning signs andmeasures to take to minimize risk. The coxswain must continually assessthe conditions to ensure the safety of the boat crew and of those indistress; however, all crew members have the responsibility to keep thecoxswain advised if the situation changes.

H.2. Prevention A boat is less likely to capsize in deep, open water. The chances ofcapsizing are greatest while operating in or near the surf or breaking seas.The force needed to capsize is most likely to come from heavy seasdirectly astern (following seas), or large breakers striking abeam. Stay atsea until conditions change. The safest point for most boats to take heavyseas is nearly bow-on. Do not operate or tow in conditions beyond thecapability of the boat or crew. In such conditions, advise the operationalcommander so that the proper resource (e.g., MLB, SRB, cutter, orhelicopter) can respond. Conditions present in many capsizings included:

• Surf or breaking seas

• Shallow water depth (less than 20 feet)

• Going against a strong tidal current and with steep following seas

• Escorting or towing another boat through an inlet

• Restricted visibility due to darkness, rain, or fog

• Stability reduced by low fuel in the tank, excessive amounts ofwater in bilges, icing of topsides, or too many people on board

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H.3. Precautions If the hull is intact after capsizing, it will not sink for some time, even inrough seas. The crew will have time to escape if panic is avoided.Precautions ahead of time include:

• Learn the boat’s interior. Initially the crew will be disoriented dueto being upside down and with a lack of lighting.

• Stow all loose gear and have all equipment and doors operatingproperly for ease in escaping.

• Know the location and use of all survival equipment. Check itregularly to be sure that it is adequate, in good repair, and that allsignaling devices work.

• Be ready to grab a sturdy support to prevent being thrown about.

H.4. Escapeprocedures

If trapped in or under the boat, seek out an air pocket near the top(inverted bottom). Gather the crew together in the air pocket. Take timeto have everyone settle down and focus on planning a safe escape.Discuss the escape route and objects of reference along the route. Lookdown; light may be visible and escape immediate.

• Make every effort to escape. The boat may sink or the air willeventually escape through hull fittings, cracks, or holes, or becomeunfit to breathe (fuel vapors, bilge waste, or lack of oxygen due tosurvivors breathing).

• Before attempting to escape, check for needed survival equipment,especially flotation and signaling devices.

• PFDs may have to be removed temporarily for people to fitthrough spaces or to go underwater to reach an exit. If necessary,tie a line to the PFD and pull it out after exiting.

• Avoid the stern if the engines are still running.

• If caught in an open co*ckpit area, swim down below the gunwalesand surface alongside the boat.

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H.4.a. Escape froman enclosedcompartment

Escape from an enclosed compartment will require additional planning.Advice includes:

• All exits are upside down when the boat capsizes. Locate an exitroute and reference points from the compartment to open water.

• PFDs may have to be removed temporarily for people to fitthrough spaces or to go underwater to reach an exit. If necessary,tie a line to the PFD and pull it out after exiting.

• Swim underwater through the exit and out from the boat. If a lineis available, the best swimmer should exit first through a cabindoor or window, carrying the line. If no line is available, have thebest swimmer go first, followed by a poorer swimmer and lastly agood swimmer. (If the poorer swimmers are left alone inside, theyare likely to panic and not escape.) The first swimmer, when free,should tap on the hull to signal success in getting out to the others.

• Cold water decreases the length of time anyone can hold theirbreath underwater. Immersion in cold water may also give asensation of tightness in the chest. Experiment inside thecompartment before attempting to escape. This will decrease thepossibility of panic during the escape attempt.

H.4.b. Alongside acapsized boat

Survivors from a capsized boat should attempt to stay with the boat orother visible floating debris.

• Get onboard a life raft if available.

• If a life raft is not available, climb onto the boat, if possible.Otherwise, hold onto the largest floating object available.

• Generally, everyone should stay with the boat and not swim forshore. Distances to the beach can be deceiving and strenuousactivities such as swimming in cold water can hasten the onset ofhypothermia.

Survivors should consider tying themselves to the boat if there is a rapidmeans of untying or cutting free, in case the boat shifts or sinks. Mostpeople are likely to become tired or develop hypothermia.

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H.4.c. Remaininginside a capsizedboat

If someone cannot exit the capsized boat:

• Remain calm and stay within an air pocket.

• Trap the air in the compartments (e.g., close any hull valves thatcan be located).

• When hearing rescuers, attempt to communicate to them byshouting or tapping on the hull.

• Conserve oxygen by remaining calm and minimizing physicalactivity. If possible, get out of the water to reduce hypothermia.

• Remember that rescuers should arrive soon.

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Chapter 7: MarlinespikeSeamanship

Overview

Introduction Marlinespike Seamanship is the art of handling and working with all kindsof line or rope. It includes knotting, splicing, and fancy decorative work.There is no better measure of a sailor’s worth than skill in marlinespikeseamanship. Much practice is required to become proficient in this skill.Knowledge of line handling terminology, phrases and standardcommunication among the crew is necessary. To be less than proficientmay be costly when the safety of LIFE and PROPERTY depends on thecrew’s knowledge of marlinespike seamanship.

This chapter contains information about the types, characteristics, use,and care of line. You will find definitions, safety practices, and linehandling commands, as well as directions for tying knots and makingsplices commonly used on Coast Guard boats and Auxiliary facilities.Included are instructions about basic boat line handling. Finally, you willfind technical information for determining which line, hooks, and shacklesare safe to use.

In this chapter These items are discussed in this chapter:

Section Title See PageA Types and Characteristics of Line 7-3B Inspection, Handling, Stowage, and

Maintenance of Line7-13

C Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load 7-27D Knots and Splices 7-33E Deck Fittings and Line Handling 7-65

Appendix A Estimating the Breaking Strength and SafeWorking Load of Lines

7-75

Appendix B Estimating the Safe Working Load ofShackles

7-79

Appendix C Estimating the Safe Working Load of Hooks 7-80Appendix D Instructions for Eye Splice in Double Braid

Line7-81

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Section A. Types and Characteristics of Line

Overview

Introduction The uses for a particular line will depend heavily upon the type andcharacteristics of the line. This section includes information regarding thedifferent types of line used in boat handling.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageLine Characteristics 7-4Natural Fiber Line 7-8Synthetic Line 7-10

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Line Characteristics

A.1. General lineconstruction

Lines are made of natural or synthetic fibers twisted into yarns. The yarnsare grouped together in such a way to form strands. Finally, the strandsare twisted, plaited, or braided, in various patterns, to form line.

A.2. Coast Guardline

Line used on Coast Guard boats is classified in two different ways:material used, and construction of the line.

A.2.a. Materialused

Lines are categorized as natural fiber or synthetic fiber. Refer to Figure7-1 for fiber line characteristics. The characteristics of the natural andsynthetic fiber lines will be explained further in this section.

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LINE NATURAL FIBER LINE SYNTHETIC FIBER LINE

CHARACTERISTICSManila Sisal Cotton Nylon Polyester Polypro-

pylenePoly-ethylene

Strength:Wall strength compared to dry

strengthShock load absorption ability

Up to 120%

Poor

Up to 120%

Poor

Up to 120%

Poor

85-90%1

Excellent

100%1

Very Good

100%

Very Good

105%

FairWeight:Specific gravityAble to float

1.38No

1.38No

1.54No

1.14No

1.38No

.91Yes

.95Yes

Elongation:Percent at breakCreep (extension under

sustained load)

10-12%

Very Low

10-12%

Very Low

5-12% 15-28%

Moderate

12-15%

Low

18-22%

High

20-24%

High

Effects of Moisture:Water absorption of individual

fibersResistance to rot, mildew, and

deterioration due to marineorganisms

Up to 100%

Poor

Up to 100%

Very Poor

Up to 100%

Very Poor

2.0-6.0%

Excellent

<1.0%

Excellent

None

Excellent

None

Excellent

Degradation:Resistance to U.V. in sunlightResistance to aging for

property store rope

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Fair2

Excellent

Fair2

Excellent

Rope Abrasion ResistanceSurfaceInternal

GoodGood

FairGood

PoorGood

Very Good3

Very Good3Very Good1

Excellent1GoodGood

FairGood

Thermal Properties:High temperature working

limitLow temperature working limitMelts at

300 ° F

-100 ° F

300 ° F

-100 ° F

300 ° F

-100 ° FChars 300 ° F

250 ° F

-70 ° F490-500 ° F

275 ° F

-70 ° F490-500 ° F

200 ° F

-20 ° F330 ° F

150 ° F

-100 ° F285 ° F

Chemical Resistance:Effects of Acid Will

disintegrate inhot diluted and

coldconcentrated

acids

Same as Manila Same as Manila Decompose bystrong mineralacids; resistantto weak acids

Resistant tomost mineral

acids;disintegrate by95% sulfuric

acid

Very Resistant Very Resistant

Effect of alkalis PoorResistance willlose strength

where exposed

Same as Manila May swell butwill not bedamaged

Little or none No effect cold;slowly

disintegrate bystrong alkalis at

the boil

Very Resistant Very Resistant

Effect of organic solvents Fair resistancefor fiber ,but

hydrocar-bonswill removeprotective

lubricants onrope

GoodResistance

PoorResistance

Resistant.Soluble in

some phenoliccompounds andin 90% formic

acid

Generallyunaffected;

soluble in somephenolic

compounds

Soluble inchlorinated

hydrocar-bonsat 160 ° F

Same aspolypro-pylene

1Grades with special overfinishes are available to enhance wet strength and abrasion properties.2For non-UV stabilized product, consult manufacturer.3Dry condition. Under wet condition: Good.

Fiber Line CharacteristicsFigure 7-1

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A.2.b.Construction

Strands are twisted to either the right or the left. This twisting is the “lay”of the line. Line may have either a left lay or a right lay depending uponhow the strands are twisted together. Line is usually constructed as plainlaid, plaited, and double braided lines. Figure 7-2 illustrates fiber ropecomponents and construction. The type of construction will depend uponthe intended use of the line.

Type CharacteristicsPlain laid Made of three strands, right or left-laid. Most

common is right-hand laid.Cable laid Made of three, right-hand, plain-laid lines laid

together to the left to make a larger cable.Plaited line Made of eight strands, four right-twisted and four

left-twisted. Strands are paired and worked like afour strand braid.

Braided line Usually made from three strands (sometimes four)braided together. The more common braided linesare hollow-braided, stuffer-braided, solid-braided,and double braided.

Double braided line Two hollow-braided ropes, one inside the other.The core is made of large single yarns in a slackbraid. The cover is also made of large single yarnsbut in a tight braid that compresses and holds thecore. This line is manufactured only fromsynthetics, and about 50% of the strength is in thecore.

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Fiber Rope Components and ConstructionFigure 7-2

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Natural Fiber Line

A.3. Composition Natural fiber line is made from organic material, specifically, plant fiber.The table below describes the various natural fiber lines.

Type DescriptionManila Made from fibers of the abaca plant and is the strongest and

most expensive of the natural fibers.Sisal Made from the agave plant and is next in strength to manila,

being rated at 80% of manila’s strength.Hemp Made from the fiber of the stalk of the hemp plant, is now

rarely used.Cotton Made from natural fibers of the cotton plant, may be three-

stranded, right-lay or of braided construction used for fancywork and lashings.

A.4. Uses ofnatural fiber line

We use natural fiber lines, usually manila, hemp or sisal, for tying offfenders, securing chafing gear, and other small stuff (i.e., line 1¾ in. incircumference and smaller) uses.

Braided line is most commonly used for signal halyard, heaving lines, andlead lines.

Plain laid line maybe used for towlines, mooring lines, anchoring, securingloose gear, fender lines, and fancy work.

A.5. Limitations

CAUTION !

Natural fiber line has a lower breaking strength than synthetic fiber line ofan equal size, and unlike synthetic line, natural fiber line does not recoverafter being stretched (elasticity). In the Coast Guard, we do not use it forload bearing purposes on boats. Another limitation of natural fiber line isthe liklihood of rotting if stowed wet.

A.6. Construction A close look at a natural fiber line will reveal that the strands are twistedtogether. They will have either a right or left lay.

Do not use naturalfiber line as atowline.

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A.7. Plain laidlines

Plain laid line is the most common type of natural fiber line used in theCoast Guard. In plain laid three strands are twisted together to the rightin an alternating pattern. Because of the number of strands, this line issometimes called "three strand" line. The yarns making up the strands arelaid in the opposite direction of the strands. These are twisted together inthe opposite direction to make the line. The direction of the twistdetermines the lay of the line. In the case of plain laid lines, the yarns aretwisted to the right. They are then twisted together to the left to makethe strands. The strands are twisted together to the right to make the line(See figure 7-2).

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Synthetic Line

A.8. Composition Synthetic line is made of inorganic (man-made) materials. Thecharacteristics of synthetic line are considerably different from naturalfiber line. The differences will vary depending on the type of from whichthe line is made. The table below identifies the various types of syntheticfiber line used.

Type DescriptionNylon A synthetic fiber of great strength, elasticity, and

resistance to weather. It comes in twisted, braided, andplaited construction, and can be used for almost anypurpose where its slippery surface and elasticity is not adisadvantage.

Dacron A synthetic fiber of about 80% if the strength of nylonbut will only stretch 10% of its original length.

PolyetheleneandPolypropylene

A synthetic fiber of about half the strength of nylon, 25%lighter than nylon making it easier to handle, and floats inwater.

A.9. Commonlyused types

The most common types of synthetic line used on Coast Guard boats arenylon and polypropylene. Because of its superior strength and elasticity,nylon is used where the line must bear a load.

A.10. Doublebraided nylon line

Double braided nylon line is the only line used for towlines on CoastGuard boats. However, Auxiliary facilities use towlines of various typesand sizes. When double braided line is made, the yarns are woventogether much like the individual yarns in a piece of cloth are woven. Theactual line consists of two hollow braid lines, an inner core and an outercover. The core is woven into a slack, limp braid from large single yarns.The cover is woven from even larger yarns into a tight braid to cover andcompress the core.

A.10.a. Elongationand elasticity

Double braided nylon has two other characteristics which increase itsstrength. These are elongation and elasticity. Elongation refers to thestretch of the line and elasticity refers to the ability of the line to recoverfrom elongation. Synthetic line will stretch farther and recover better thannatural line. Because of this, synthetic line can absorb the intermittentforces and surges resulting from waves or seas much better than naturalfiber line.

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A.10.b. Limitations While its superior strength makes double braided nylon line the preferredchoice for load bearing there are disadvantages. Because it will stretchfurther (elongate) and still recover (elasticity), the snap back potential ifthe line parts is greater than with natural fiber line. Also, if nylon line isdoubled and placed under excessive strain, there is a danger that the deckfittings might fail. If that happens, the line will snap back like a rubberband, bringing the deck fitting with it. Additionally, damage to the engineor deck fittings could occur if the bollard pull is exceeded.

A.10.c. Definition

CAUTION !

Bollard pull is the point where the static pulling force becomes such thatany increase in engine load could lead to damage to the engine or thetowing bitt.

A.11. Plain laidpolypropylene line

Orange colored polypropylene line is used on Coast Guard boats for liferings, and kapok heaving lines. The advantage to this line is high visibilityand floatation.

A.11.a. Limitations The main disadvantage is lack of strength compared to nylon line of equalsize. Its loose course weave makes it easy to splice but susceptible tochafing. Aggravating this is polypropylene’s characteristic ofdeteriorating rapidly when exposed to continuous sunlight. It can in fact,lose up to 40% of its strength over three months of exposure. For thisreason the line is best kept covered when not in use, and inspected andreplaced on a regular basis.

A.12. Slippage Synthetic line slips much easier than natural line. Because of this, it willslip through deck fittings and not hold knots as well. Be careful whenbending synthetic line to an object or to another line to ensure the knotwill not slip out. One way to help prevent this is to leave a longer tail onthe running or bitter end than you would with natural fiber line.

A.13.Considerations

When using synthetic lines consider the following:

• Synthetic line will slip more easily than natural fiber line. Youmust use caution when paying it or surging it from deck fittings.

• Beware of slippage when bending synthetic line together orsecuring it.

Never double a line or use a single line which can withstand more pulling forcethan the bollard pull of the towing bitt.

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• Never stand in any position exposing yourself to the dangers ofsnap back if the line parts.

• Do not double up the line during a towing operation.

• Keep working surfaces of bitts free of paint and rust.

CAUTION !

• Do not stand in the bight of a line or directly in line with itsdirection of pull.

A.14. Cutting

NOTE $$

The use of a hot knife is the preferred method for cutting nylon andpolypropylene line. Using a hot knife eliminates the need for burning theends. Commercial electric knives, used by sail makers, are available.Some soldering irons can be fit with blades for cutting line. The mostaccessible method for most people is to heat an old knife or scraper usinga propane torch.

When cutting the line, let the heat do the job. Do not force the blade orsaw through the line The best method is to work from the outside in.First, an incision is made around the circumference of the line. Then cutthrough the center.

To minimize the hazard of being pulled into a deck fitting when a line suddenlysurges ensure all crew members stand as far as possible from the equipment.Work the lines with your hands a safe distance from the fittings. This isparticularly important during towing operations.

Remember, when apiece of rope is cut,it will fray. Alwaysfinish the end of theline whether beforeor immediately aftercutting the line.

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Section B. Inspection, Handling, Maintenance, andStowage of Line

Overview

Introduction Boat crewmen must know how to inspect, handle, maintain, and stowline. This section provides the necessary information regarding basicinspection, maintenance, and stowage of line.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageInspection 7-14Uncoiling and Unreeling 7-17Maintenance 7-20Stowing Lines 7-23

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Inspection

B.1. General A periodic inspection of all lines used should be made, paying specialattention to the following items:

• Aging

• Fiber wear

• Fiber damage

• Chafing

• Kinks

• co*ckles

• Cutting

• Overloading or shockloading

• Rust

• Eye splices

B.1.a. Aging

CAUTION !

Aging affects natural fibers more severely than synthetic. Cellulose, themain component in natural fibers will deteriorate with age, getting morebrittle and turning yellow or brownish. When bent over bitts or cleats, thefibers easily rupture and break. During bending, line strength maydecrease up to five times. To check for aging, open the lay of the line andnote the color of the interior fibers. In an old line they will be gray ordark brown. Aging is not a significant problem for nylon line, though itwill change its color with age. As stated before though, polypropyleneline does deteriorate rapidly when exposed to sunlight.

B.1.b. Fiber wear When natural fiber line is under strain, the friction of the fibers, yarns andstrands against each other, causes internal wear. You can check forinternal wear when you check for aging. Upon opening the lay of the line,look for the presence of a white powdery substance. This residue is smallparticles of line worn off by friction.

Synthetic doublebraided line shouldnot be taken apartfor internalinspection.

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B.1.c. Fiberdamage

Damage to internal natural fibers occurs when a line under a strainexceeds 75% of its breaking strength. Although this load is not enough topart the line, it is enough to cause some of the internal fibers to break.Check for internal fiber damage when you check for aging and internalwear. Internal broken fibers indicates that the line has been damaged.With synthetic line some of the individual synthetic fibers of the line maybreak if overloaded. These will be visible on the outer surface of the line.

B.1.d. Chafing Chafing is wear affecting the outer surface of a line, caused by the frictionof the line rubbing against a rough surface. To check for chafing, visuallyinspect the outer surface of the line for frayed threads and broken orflattened strands. With synthetic line, chafing can also cause hardeningand fusing of the outer layer.

B.1.e. Kinks A kink (Figure 7-3) is a twist or curl caused when the line doubles backon itself. Never place a line with a kink in it under strain. The tensionwill put a permanent distortion in the line. Remove all kinks before usinga line.

Line with a KinkFigure 7-3

B.1.f. co*ckles

NOTE $$

A co*ckle (or hockle) is actually a kink in an inner yarn that forces theyarns to the surface. co*ckles can be corrected by stretching the line andtwisting the free end to restore the original lay. A co*ckle can reduce linestrength by as much as a third.

B.1.g. Cutting A line damaged by cutting will usually show brooming and yarn endprotrusion. This can weaken the line and probably cause line failure understrain.

Braided line will not kink or hockle.

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B.1.h. Overloadingor shock-loading

Signs that a line was overloaded are stretch out and hardness. Linestretched to the point where it will not come back has a decreaseddiameter. To determine this place the line under slight tension andmeasure the circumference of a reduced area and of a normal area. If thecircumference is reduced by five percent or more, replace the line.

Another indication of synthetic line overloading, is hardness to the touch.You will notice this hardness if you gently squeeze the line. Don’t useoverloaded line.

A line under strain is dangerous. If it parts, it will do so with a lot offorce, depending on the size and type of line, and how much strain it isunder when it parts. As a general rule, when a line is under stress, alwayskeep an eye on it. If you stand in line with the strain you might beseriously injured if the line parts an snaps back at you.

B.1.i. Rust Rust stains, extending into the cross section of natural fiber and nylonfiber yarns can lower line strength as much as 40%.

B.1.j. Eye splices(double braidednylon line)

Prior to each use inspect all eye splices in your towline and side lines(mooring lines). Pay particular attention to the female section ensuringthere are not “flat spots” where the crossover is buried at the base of theeye. Also inspect the entire eye for chafing and cuts. (See Appendix 7-Dfor illustrations.)

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Uncoiling and Unreeling

B.2. General

NOTE $$

Proper use and care will significantly extend the lifetime of the lines used.Everyone should be responsible for protecting lines from damage. Alongwith good inspections some of the ways to accomplish this are properbreakout, stowage, and care.

B.3. Uncoilingnatural fiber laidline

To uncoil natural fiber laid line, follow these steps:

Step Procedure1 Look inside the center tunnel of the coil to locate the end of the

line.2 Position the coil so the inside line end is at the bottom of the

center tunnel.3 Start uncoiling the line by drawing the INSIDE END UP

THROUGH THE TOP OF THE TUNNEL. (See figure 7-4)

Do not pull on any kinks that develop, as they will develop intopermanent strand co*ckles. If kinks develop, lay the line out straight andremove them before use.

Never permanently cover natural fiber line with anything that will prevent theevaporation of moisture.

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Opening a New Coil of LineFigure 7-4

B.4. Unreelingsynthetic fiber line

The recommended method for unreeling synthetic fiber lines is to:

• Insert a pipe through the center and hang the reel off the deck.

• Draw the line from the lower reel surface.

DO NOT “throw” twisted fiber lines off the reel as it will cause tanglesand kinks. It is recommended that three strand synthetic lines be fakeddown on deck and allowed to relax for twenty four hours. Lengths lessthan 50 feet will relax in one hour when laid out straight. Fake downdouble braided line in figure eight patterns. (See figure 7-5)

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Line Faked DownFigure 7-5

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Maintenance

B.5. Basic linemaintenance

While there is not anything that can be done to restore bad line, there areprecautions to take to lengthen its lifetime. The following are some of thethings that can be done to extend the life of lines.

B.5.a. Keep linesclean

Keep lines free from grit or dirt. Gritty material can work down into thefibers while a line is relaxed. Under tension the movement of the grit willact as an abrasive and will cause serious damage to the fibers.

B.5.b. Use chafinggear

Chafing gear is made of old hoses, leather, or heavy canvas. It is used toprotect short pieces of line where they run over taff rails, chocks, or othersurfaces (See Figure 7-6).

Chafing GearFigure 7-6

B.5.c. Keep deckfittings clean andsmooth

Bitts, cleats, and chock surfaces should be kept smooth to reduce lineabrasion.

B.5.d. Watch forfrozen water

Do not let water freeze on lines. Ice is abrasive and can cut fibers.

B.5.e. Crushing orpinching lines

Do not walk on, place loads on, drag loads over, or in other ways crushor pinch a line.

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B.5.f. Sharp bends Bending under a load causes internal abrasion between the strands of theline. If a line has to go around something, use a fair lead. A fair lead isany hole, bull’s-eye, lizard, suitably placed roller, sheave, etc., serving toguide or lead a rope in a desired direction. If a fair lead is not used,remember that the bigger the bend, the less the abrasive effect.

B.6. Care ofnatural fiber line

The practices that should be avoided or observed in the maintenance ofnatural fiber line are as follows:

Dos Don’ts• Dry line before stowing it.• Protect line from weather

when possible.• Use chafing gear (canvas,

short lengths of old fire hose,etc.) where line runs oversharp edges or rough surfaces.

• Slack off taut lines when itrains. Wet lines shrink and ifthe line is taut, the resultingstrain may be enough to breaksome of the fibers.

• Reverse turns on winchesperiodically to keep out thekinks.

• Lay right-laid lines clockwiseon reels or capstans and left-lain lines counterclockwiseuntil they are broken in.

• Inspect lines for fiber damageand other wear conditionsbefore each use.

• Try to tie knots or hitches innew places as much aspossible so as not to wear outthe line.

• Occasionally end-for-ending(swap one end for the other)to help reduce excessive wearat certain points.

• Stow wet or damp line in anunventilated compartment orcover it so that it cannot dry.Mildew will form and weaken thefibers.

• Subject the line to intense heat orunnecessarily allow it to lie in thehot sun. The lubricant will dryout, thus shortening the usefullife of the line.

• Subject a line to loads exceedingits safe working load. Individualfibers will break, reducing thestrength.

• Allow line to bear on sharp edgesor run over rough surfaces.

• Scrub line. The lubricant will bewashed away, and caustics instrong soap may harm the fibers.

• Try to lubricate line. Thelubricant you add may do moreharm than good.

• Put a strain on a line with a kinkin it.

• Let wear become localized in onespot.

• Unbalance line by continued useon winch in same direction.

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B.7. Care ofsynthetic fiber line

Most of the practices in the maintenance of natural fiber line are the samefor synthetic fiber line. However, the differences are as follows:

• Nylon is not subject to mildew, and it may and should be scrubbedif it becomes slippery because of oil or grease. Spots may beremoved by cleaning with light oils such as kerosene or diesel oil,or with liquid soap and water.

• Synthetic line stretches when put under a load. Allow plenty oftime for the line to recover to its original length before coiling on adrum or reel.

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Stowing Lines

B.8. General To prevent the deteriorating effects of sunlight, chemicals, paints soaps,and linseed or cotton seed oils, store lines to prevent contact with harmfulitems or conditions.

B.9. Natural fiberlines

Natural fiber lines can be damaged by contact with just about anything.They are especially susceptible to the rotting and mildewing effects ofmoisture. After use, allow natural fiber line to dry thoroughly and stow itin a cool, dark, well ventilated space.

B.10. Syntheticfiber lines

NOTE $$

Synthetic fiber lines are not as susceptible to the effects of moisture asnatural fiber lines. They are though affected by all of the other conditionsand materials that will hurt line. Keep the boat’s towline and othersynthetic lines covered or stored in a dark area, when not in use.

Synthetic line should not be constantly coiled in the same direction asdoing this tends to tighten the twist. Three-strand synthetic line is oftencoiled clockwise to reduce a natural tendency to tighten up. It can becoiled in figure eights to avoid kinks when paying out. (See figure 7-7)

Whereas synthetic line stretches when put under a load, allow plenty oftime for the line to recover to its original length before coiling on a drumor reel.

Stow lines indesignated spacewhen not in use.

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Figure Eight CoilsFigure 7-7

B.11. Towline See Chapter 17 - Towing for procedures to stow towlines.

B.12. Coiling The most common method of stowing the extra line on deck or on thedock after making fast to a cleat is to coil it.

B.13. Flemishinga line

Flemishing a line consists of coiling a line clockwise against the deck. It isused for appearance (eg: inspections, seaman-like appearance). (SeeFigure 7-8)

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Flemishing a LineFigure 7-8

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Section C. Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load

Overview

Introduction This section provides the necessary information to determine the breakingstrength and safe working load of a line.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageBreaking Strength and Safe Working Load of a Line 7-28Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load for Shackles andHooks

7-30

Considerations and Limitations 7-31

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Breaking Strength and Safe Working Load of a Line

C.1. General A line stretches as it takes on a load. It will continue to do so as tensionincreases until it reaches its breaking point. Then it will part and snapback. There have been many injuries and deaths caused by lines snappingwhen working under tension. Safe line handling is a combination ofknowledge and skill. The ability to determine the breaking strength (BS)and safe working load (SWL) of a line is an important factor in safe linehandling.

C.2. Breakingstrength (BS)

The BS of a line is measured in the number of pounds of stress a line cantake before it parts. It is a part of the technical information provided to apurchaser. The number comes from stress tests conducted by themanufacturer of the line and is an average of all the lines tested. Thismeans, it is not accurate for any specific line. You must apply a safetyfactor to determine the SWL of a line.

C.3. Safe workingload (SWL)

Line should be selected with its intended usage, or working load, in mind.A common seamanship practice says that the SWL of a line should be notmore than one-fifth of its breaking strength, or that the BS should be fivetimes the weight of the object attached to the rope. This five-to-onesafety factor allows for sudden strains, shock loading, and normaldeterioration as the line ages.

C.3.a. Varioustypes of line

Figure 7-9 provides the breaking strength and safe working load inpounds for various types of line used on Coast Guard boats. In the table,each size of line is classified as “good,” “average” or “poor.”

The SWL and BS of the lines below were figured mathematically basedon the circumference of each line. Line procured through governmentsupply sources is measured in circumference. Commercially procuredline, however, is measured in diameter. The formula for convertingcircumference to diameter and vice versa is contained in Appendix A. Forsimplicity, both the diameter and the circumference of the most commonlyused Coast Guard lines are provided below.

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Manila Nylon (Double Braided)Size Size BS SWL by Line Condition BS SWL by Line Condition

Diam. Cir. lbs. Good Average Poor lbs. Good Average Poor5/8 2 3,600 720 360 240 9,000 3,000 2,250 1,500

11/16 2½ 5,625 1,123 562 375 14,062 4,687 3,515 2,3437/8 2¾ 6,804 1,360 680 454 17,010 5,670 4,242 2,8351 3 8,100 1,620 810 540 20,250 6,750 5,062 3,375

Polypropylene/Polyethylene Polyester (Dacron)Size Size BS SWL by Line Condition BS SWL by Line Condition

Diam. Cir. lbs. Good Average Poor lbs. Good Average Poor5/8 2 5,040 1,008 840 630 7,200 2,400 1,800 1,200

11/16 2½ 7,875 1,575 1,312 840 11,250 3,750 2,812 1,8757/8 2¾ 9,525 1,905 1,588 1,190 13,608 4,536 3,402 2,2681 3 11,340 2,268 1,890 1,417 16,200 5,400 4,050 2,700

Three-strand NylonSize Size BS SWL by Line Condition

Diam. Cir. lbs. Good Average Poor5/8 2 10,300 3433 2575 17177/8 2¾ 19,600 6533 4900 32671 3 25,000 8333 6250 4167

Minimum Breaking Strengths and Safe WorkingLoads for Natural and Synthetic Lines

Figure 7-9

NOTE $$

C.3.b. Three-strandnylon line

The Auxiliary may use three-strand nylon line for towing. Typical linesize and average breaking strength are summarized below. The safeworking load condition and specific values can be calculated as shown inAppendix A.

The only type of synthetic line authorized by the Coast Guard for towing is doublebraided nylon. The other lines listed in the table are for comparison purposes.

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Breaking Strength and Safe Working load for Shackles andHooks

C.4. General Given a choice between the hardware breaking or the line parting, it isusually safer for the line to part. The BS of shackles is six times greaterthan their SWL. Figure 7-10 shows the sizes of shackles and hooks. Therelationship is based on the SWL of hooks, shackles, and towlines. It isconsistent with the general rule that you never use a shackle or hook witha SWL less than the SWL of the line being used.

C.5. Determiningsafety

To determine whether any of the shackles or hooks listed below are safewith a particular line, extract the SWL of the shackle or hook from thetable. Next extract the SWL for the line. Finally, compare the two. TheSWL of the shackle or hook should be equal to or greater than the SWLof the line.

Appendix A contains the formulas for computing the BS and SWL of line,hooks and shackles. The figures derived by using these formulas are onlyestimates of actual strengths for guidance purposes. Best judgement andexperience must be applied when using these formulas.

Size BS SWL Size BS SWLInches lbs. lbs. Length lbs. lbs.

3/8 12,000 3,000 55/8 12,000 3,0001/2 24,000 6,000 615/16 24,000 6,0005/8 39,000 9,750 815/32 39,000 9,000

Recommended Shackles and Hooks to beUsed With Coast Guard Authorized Towline

Figure 7-10

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Considerations and Limitations

C.6. General Even though you may correctly determine the SWL of lines, shackles andhooks, there are many variables affecting the equipment. In actual use itis not always possible to operate within the SWL. Sometimes you can’tmatch appropriate hardware with particular lines.

C.7. Keep alert It is necessary for you to keep a constant eye on a line under stress. Theunpredictable, unforeseen and often dangerous forces in the marineenvironment will catch you by surprise unless you are always on guard.By using good judgment you can usually make timely adjustments tocorrect for these adverse forces.

C.8. Stay withinlimits

Try to keep the tension on line and equipment well within their SWL. Itis difficult to tell when the SWL is reached or surpassed. A suddensurging (pulling) of a towline may cause the tension on the line andhardware to approach their breaking points. This is when the danger ofparting becomes a safety hazard.

C.9. Unknown BSand SWL

The moment you connect your towline to a distressed vessel’s deckfittings, your entire towing system assumes an unknown BS and SWLfactor. You often cannot get a reliable estimate of BS and SWL evenwhen you can attach the proper equipment to the disabled craft. Becausethis is the weak link in towing, you must keep the towline and the boat intow under constant observation.

C.10. Measurepercentage ofelongation

The device used to measure the percentage of elongation is called aTattletale Cord or a Strain Gauge. A tattletale cord is a bight of heavycord or light small stuff which is cut to a specific length depending on thetype of synthetic line it is used with. The ends of the tattletale cord aresecured at a specified distance apart on the line, again, depending on thetype of synthetic line. As the line elongates under strain, the tattletalecord stretches with it. When the cord is drawn taut the line has reachedthe percent of critical strength for various synthetic lines, the length oftattletale cord used to measure this elongation and the distance the endsof the cord must be tied apart when secured on the line.

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Dimensions for tattletale cords can be summarized as follows:

NOTE $$Type of Synthetic Line

Length ofTattletalein Inches

DistanceCord inInches

CriticalStretch

inPercent

Nylon (3 strand) 40 30 40Nylon (double braided) 48 40 20Nylon (plaited) 40 30 40Polyester (3 strand) 34 34 20Polypropylene (3 strand) 36 30 20

Navy studies haveshown thattattletales will givewarning for a linethat has been shockloaded. Their useand position ofplacement ontowlines is optional.

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Section D. Knots and Splices

Overview

Introduction This section details the procedures regarding the art of knots and splices.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageEstimating the Length of a Line 7-34Breaking Strength 7-35Basic Knots 7-36Splices 7-54Whipping 7-59Mousing Hooks and Shackles 7-62

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Estimating the Length of a Line

D.1. Procedure Estimating a length of a line can be a useful skill. One method of doing sois as follows:

Step Procedure1 Hold the end of a length of line in one hand.2 Reach across with your other hand and pull the line through the

first hand, fully extending both arms from the shoulder.

The length of line from one hand to the other, across your chest, will beroughly six feet (one fathom). Actually, this distance will be closer toyour height, but this measure is close enough for a rough and quickestimate of line needed.

If more line is needed, repeat the process keeping the first hand in placeon the line as a marker until you have measured off the length of linerequired. For example, if you need 36' of line, you would repeat theprocedure six times.

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Breaking Strength

D.2. Knots andsplices

Knots are used for pulling, holding, lifting, and lowering. When using linefor these purposes it is often necessary to join two or more lines together.Knots and bends are used for temporary joining, and splices provide apermanent joining. In either case, the BS of the joined line is normallyless than the BS of the separated lines.

The weakest point in a line is the knot or splice. They can reduce the BSof a line as much as 50 to 60 percent. A splice, however, is stronger thana knot. Figure 7-11 lists each of the commonly used knots and splices. Itprovides their percent of line BS lost and percent of line BS remaining.

Knots or SpliceRemaining

Percent of LineBreaking Strength

Lost

Percent of LineBreaking Strength

RemainingSquare 46 54Bowline 37 63Two Bowlines(Eye in Eye) 43 57Becket Bend 41 59Double Becket Bend 41 59Round Turn 30-35 65-70Timber Hitch 30-35 65-70Clove Hitch 40 60Eye Splice 5-10 90-95Short Splice 15 85

Percent of Line Breaking Strength LossFigure 7-11

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Basic Knots

D.3. General Knots are the intertwining of the parts of one or more lines to secure thelines to themselves, each other (bends), or other objects (hitches).Because knots decrease the strength of the line, they should always betreated as temporary. If you need something permanent, use a splice orseizing.

D.4. Definitions In making knots and splices you must know the names for the parts of aline and the basic turns employed. Refer to figure 7-12 and 7-13 for anexample of the following knots.

Knot DescriptionBitter End The running end or the free end of a line. It is the

end of the line that is worked with.Standing Part The long unused or belayed end. The remaining part

of the line including the end that is not worked.Overhand Loop A loop made in a line by crossing the bitter end over

the standing part.Underhand Loop A loop made in the line by crossing the bitter end

under the standing part.

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Basic Parts and LoopsFigure 7-12

Knot Name DescriptionBight A half loop formed by turning the line back on itself.Turn A single wind or bight of a rope, laid around a

belaying-pin, post, bollard, or the like.Round Turn A complete turn or encircling of a line about an

object, as opposed to a single turn.

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Bight and TurnsFigure 7-13

D.5. Anatomy of aknot

Good knots are easy to tie, easy to untie, and hold well. A good knotshould not untie itself. A knot used to secure lines together is a bend. Aknot used to secure a line to an object, such as a ring or eye, is a hitch.The knots listed below are those most commonly used in boat operations.Learn to tie them well, for the time may come when the skill to do socould decide the outcome of a mission.

D.5.a. Bowline The bowline is a versatile knot. Use it anytime you need a temporary eyein the end of a line. It also works for tying two lines securely together,though there are better knots for this. An advantage of bowlines is thatthey do not slip or jam easily. Refer to figure 7-14 as you follow thesesteps below.

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Step Procedure1 Make an overhand loop in the line the size of the eye desired.2 Pass the bitter end up through the eye.3 Bring the bitter end around the standing part and back down

through the eye.4 Pull the knot tight by holding the bitter end and the loop with

one hand and pulling on the standing part with the other.

BowlineFigure 7-14

D.5.b. Half hitches Hitches are used for temporarily securing a line to objects such as a ringor eye. One of their advantages is their ease in untying. The half hitch isthe smallest and simplest hitch. Tie it only to objects having a right handpull. Since a single half hitch may slip easily, use care in cases where itwill encounter extreme stress. Refer to figure 7-15 as you follow thesteps below.

Step Procedure1 Pass the line around the object.2 Bring the working end “a” around the standing part and back

under itself.

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Half HitchFigure 7-15

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D.5.c. Two halfhitches

To reinforce or strengthen a single half hitch, tie more. Two half hitchesmake a more reliable knot than a single half hitch. Use them to make theends of a line fast around its own standing part. A round turn or two,secured with a couple of half hitches, is a quick way to secure a line to apole or spar. Two half hitches are needed to secure a line at an anglewhere it might slide vertically or horizontally. Refer to figure 7-16 as youfollow the steps below.

Step Procedure1 Take a turn around the object.2 Bring the bitter end (running end) under and over the standing

part and back under itself.3 Continue by passing bitter end under and over the standing part

and back under itself.

Two Half HitchesFigure 7-16

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D.5.d. Rolling hitch(Stopper)

A rolling hitch is used to attach one line to another, where the second lineis under a strain and cannot be bent. Refer to figure 7-17 as you followthe steps below.

Step Procedure1 With the bitter end “a” make a turn over and under the second

line “b” and pass the link over itself.2 Pass “a” over and under “b” again bringing “a” through the

space between the two lines on the first turn.3 Pull taut and make another turn with the bitter end “a” taking it

over, then under, then back over itself.4 Pull taut and tie a half hitch.

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Rolling HitchFigure 7-17

D.5.e. Clove hitch A clove hitch is preferred for securing a heaving line to a towline. It isthe best all-around knot for securing a line to a ring or spar. Correctlytied, a clove hitch will not jam or loosen. However, if it is not tied tightenough it may work itself out. Reinforce it with a half hitch. Refer tofigure 7-18 as you follow the steps below.

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Step Procedure1 Pass the bitter end “a” around the object so the first turn

crosses the standing part.2 Bring the bitter end “a” around again and pass it through itself.3 Pull taut.4 Reinforce by tying a half hitch.

Clove HitchFigure 7-18

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D.5.f. Slip clovehitch

Use a slip clove hitch in lieu a clove. Tie it in the same manner as theclove hitch but finish it with a bight to allow for quick release. (See figure7-19.) It is sometimes used for stowing lines and fenders. It should notbe used when working with the line.

Slip Clove HitchFigure 7-19

D.5.g. Timber hitch Timber hitches are used to secure a line to logs, spars, planks or otherrough-surfaced material. Do not use it on pipes or other metal objects.Refer to figure 7-20 as you follow the steps below.

Step Procedure1 Tie a half hitch.2 Continue taking the bitter end “a” over and under the standing

part.3 Pull the standing part taut.4 You may add two half hitches for extra holding (See figure 7-

21.) Unless you can slip the half hitch over the end of theobject, tie it before making the timber hitch.

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Timber HitchFigure 7-20

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Timber Hitch with Two Half HitchesFigure 7-21

D.5.h. Singlebecket bend (sheetbend)

Lines can be lengthened by bending one to another using a becket bend.It is the best knot for connecting a line to an eye splice in another line. Itcan be readily taken apart even after being under a load. Single becketbends are used to join line of the same size or nearly the same size. It isintended to be temporary. Refer to figure 7-22 as you follow the stepsbelow.

Step Procedure1 Form a bight in one of the lines to be joined together, line “a”.2 Pass the bitter end of the second line “b” up through the bight

formed by the first line “a.”3 Wrap the end of line “b” around the bight in “a.”4 Pass the end of “b” under its own standing part.5 Pull taut.

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Single Becket/Sheet BendFigure 7-22

D.5.i. Doublebecket bend (doublesheet bend)

The double becket bend works for joining lines of unequal size. It is tiedin the same manner as the single becket bend except for the followingvariation in step 4 above: Pass line “b” around and under its standing parttwice. (See figure 7-23.)

Double Becket/Sheet BendFigure 7-23

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D.5.j. Reef knot(square knot)

Called a square knot by Boy Scouts, the reef knot is one of the mostcommonly used knots in marlinespike seamanship. Reef knots are rarelyused on small boats because they jam badly under strain. Also, reef knotsdo not effectively hold lines of different sizes or materials. Reef knots arebest used to finish securing laces (canvas cover, awning, sail to a gaff,etc.), temporary whippings, and other small stuff. Refer to figure 7-24while tying this knot.

Step Procedure1 Tie a single overhand knot.2 Tie a second overhand knot on top so it mirrors (right and left

reversed) the first one. The ends should come out together.3 Draw tight.

Reef Knot (Square Knot)Figure 7-24

D.5.k. Themonkey’s fist

Because some lines, such as towlines, are too heavy and awkward tothrow any distance, a heaving line, with a monkey’s fist tied on one end, isused. On Coast Guard boats, heaving lines are normally 75 to 100 feet ofcotton line with a weighted core. Refer to figure 7-25 while tying thisknot.

Step Procedure1 Lay a bight of the line across the fingers of the left hand, about

three and one-half feet from the end, holding the standing partwith the left thumb.

2 With your fingers separated, take three turns around them.3 Next take three turns around the first three and at right angles

to them.4 Take the knot off your fingers and take an additional three

turns around the second three and inside the first three.

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Step Procedure5 Take additional care at this step. Place the core weight into the

knot and tighten it down carefully.6 After tightening, there should be about 18 inches of line left on

the bitter end. This can be brought up and seized alongside tothe standing part.

Monkey’s FistFigure 7-25

D.5.l. Figure eight(stopper)

A figure eight knot is an overhand knot with an extra twist. It willprevent the end of a line from feeding through a block or fairlead whenheavy loads are involved. It is also easier to untie and does not jam ashard as the over hand knot. (See figure 7-26.)

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Figure Eight KnotFigure 7-26

D.5.m. Sheepshank This hitch is used for temporarily shortening a piece of line. It consists oftwo bights of line, side-by-side, with a half hitch at either end. (See figure7-27.)

SheepshankFigure 7-27

D.5.n. Fisherman’sor anchor bend

This bend is used to secure a line to a ring in an anchor or mooring buoy.It can also be tied around a spar. (See figure 7-28.)

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Step Procedure1 Pass the bitter end through the ring and around twice creating

two loops spiraling downward2 Wrap the bitter end up around the standing end and pass back

through the loops at the top.3 Tie a half hitch.4 Pull taut.

Fisherman’s or Anchor BendFigure 7-28

D.5.o. Crown knot A crown knot may be used to prevent an unwhipped line from unlaying.(See figure 7-29.)

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Step Procedure1 Unlay the strands of the line about 12".2 Separate the strands and hold them up with the middle strand

facing you.3 Bend the middle strand “a” away from you and form a loop.4 Bring the right strand “b” around behind the loop, placing it

between strand “c”.5 Bring strand “c” over strand “b” and through the loop formed

by strand “a”.6 Pull taut by heaving on each of the three strands.7 Lay the back splice by tucking each strand back up the line.

The splicing is done as if making an eye splice.

Crown KnotFigure 7-29

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Splices

D.6. General Splices make a more permanent joining of two lines or two parts of a line.It is done by unlaying the strands or parts of the line(s) to be spliced andthen putting the strands or parts back together to form a new union. Thetype of splice used depends on the type of joint and the type of line. OnCoast Guard boats the most common splices are eye splices at theworking end of the towline, side lines, and mooring lines. Because doublesplices in braided nylon is the accepted line for towlines, eye splices indouble braid will be shown. For those people who use three strand nylonfor mooring lines, three strand eye splices will be illustrated. Additionally,directions for three strand back slices are given. They are a handy way forfinishing off the ends of the lines on fenders and three strand heaving lines.

D.6.a. Eye splice inthree strand plaidlaid line

The eye splice makes a permanent loop (the eye) in the end of a line.Refer to figure 7-30 as you follow the steps below.

Step Procedure1 Unlay the strands of the line about 12".2 Make a bight the size of the eye required.

NOTE $$ 3 Hold the strands up so the middle strand is facing you.

4 Tuck the middle strand “a.”5 Cross strand “b” over the strand just tucked and then under the

strand just below it.6 Turn the entire eye splice over and tuck strand “c.”7 Pull all strands tight.8 Pass each strand over the adjacent strand and under the next

strand until there are three tucks in each strand (Synthetic linerequires an additional tuck).

Always tuck themiddle strand firstand keep the right-hand strand of theside of the line thatis facing towardyou. All tucks aremade from outboardtoward you.

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Three Stranded Eye SpliceFigure 7-30

D.6.b. Back splicein three strand plainlaid line

Use a back splice to finish off the end of a line. On Coast Guard boats itcan be used on the ends of fender lines. Start with unlaying the strands atthe end. Then bend them back on the line, and then interweave them backthrough the strands of the standing part. The procedure for making aback splice are as follows: (See figure 7-31.)

Step Procedure1 Begin the back splice by tying a crown knot. Each strand goes

under and out from its neighbor in the direction of the lay.2 Pass each strand under itself, just beneath the crown knot. Do

not pull these first tucks too tight.

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Step Procedure3 Proceed with three more rounds of tucks - over one, under

one, as in an eye splice.4 If preferred, it can finished by trimming the ends of the strands.

Back Splice (Three Strand)Figure 7-31

D.6.c. Short splice A short splice is used to permanently connect two ends of a line. It isimportant to note that a short splice is never used in a line that must passover a pulley or sheeve. The procedure for making a short splice are asfollows: (See figure 7-32.)

Step Procedure1 Unlay the strands of the lines to be spliced, about 12".

NOTE $$ 2 Bring the ends together by alternating strands.

3 Slide the two ends together, that is -- butt them andtemporarily seize them with sail twin or tape.

4 Tuck each strand over and under three times, the same way asin eye splicing. (Synthetic line requires an additional tuck.)

5 Remove the seizing.

If desired, taper theshort splice in thesame manner as theeye splice.

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Short SpliceFigure 7-32

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D.6.d. Eye splice indouble braid line

Splicing double braid entails pulling the core out of the cover and thenputting the line back together to make the splice. The basic principle forputting it back together is:

1. The cover goes into the core.

2. Then the core goes back into the cover.

Splicing double braid requires the use of a special fid, or similar tool. Themost common type is a bllet-nosed, hollow, tubular device. Use it with aproper sized line. This type of fid requires a “pusher” which resembles along, blunt-pointed ice pick. For instructions on splicing double braidednylon, see Appendix 7-D.

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Whipping

D.7. General The end of a cut line will unravel and fray if not secured with a whippingor back-spliced. Whippings may be permanent or temporary.

D.8. Temporarywhipping

Sometimes called the common whipping, temporary whippings maketemporary repairs and secure strands of lines while splicing. They are notvery durable and easily unravel if snagged. They are normally done usingsail twine, although almost any small stuff will do. The procedures belowinstruct how to make temporary whipping.

Step Procedure1 Cut a piece of sail twine or small stuff, in length about ten times

the circumference of the line being seized.2 Lay the sail twine or small stuff alongside the line to be

whipped (See figure 7-33.)3 Form an overhand loop in the sail twine or small stuff such that

the loop extends about ½" beyond the end.4 Holding end “a,” make a series of turns over the loop toward

the bitter end of the line. Make enough so the length of theturns are about equal to the diameter of the line.

5 Slip end “a” through the loop “c.”6 Secure by pulling loop end from sight by pulling on “b.”7 Cut off excess whipping ends or secure them by tying them

together with a reef or square knot.

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Temporary WhippingFigure 7-33

D.9. Permanentwhipping

Permanent whippings are made to last. To make one, take several wrapsaround the line using shot line or waxed nylon. Then sew the ends of thewhipping line across the whipping and through the line. (See figure 7-34.)

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Step Procedure1 Cut enough of the whipping line to allow for 15 to 20 wraps,

with at least a foot of line left over.2 Secure the whipping line by sewing it through the line. If you

want, you can add strength by sewing through more than once.3 Wind the whipping line around the line 15 to 20 times, working

toward the end of the line. Make sure the body of thewhipping covers the secured end of the whipping line.

4 Secure the whipping by sewing through the line. Then bringthe line across the whipping and sewing it through the line. Dothis three or more times, depending on the size of the line.

5 Finish the whipping by sewing through the line a couple moretimes and cutting the whipping line off close. A pull on the linewill pull the end of the whipping line inside, hiding it fromview.

Permanent WhippingFigure 7-34

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Mousing Hooks and Shackles

D.10 Hooks A hook is moused to keep slings and straps from slipping out or off thehooks. This is accomplished by either mechanical means or by seizing thehook, using seizing wire or small stuff, from opposite sides. (See figure7-35.)

Mousing a HookFigure 7-35

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D.11. Shackles Shackles are moused to prevent the pin from backing out. This is usuallydone on screw pin shackles. Mousing is accomplished by taking severalturns, using seizing wire or small stuff, through the pin eye and around theshackle itself in such a way so the pin cannot turn.

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Section E. Deck Fittings and Line Handling

Overview

Introduction This section explains the procedures for securing lines to the various typesof deck fittings.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageDeck Fittings 7-66Line Handling 7-67

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Deck Fittings

E.1. General Deck fittings are attachments or securing points for lines. They permiteasy handling and reduce wear and friction on lines.

E.2. Types offittings

There are three basic types of deck fittings: Bitts, cleats, and chocks.Several types of deck fittings are shown in figure 7-36.

Types of Deck FittingsFigure 7-36

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Line Handling

E.3. General Most Coast Guard standard boats have a towing bitt and a bow bitt. Youfind cleats on the decks next to the gunwales on each side of a boat usedwith bitts and cleats to help prevent chafing of the line. The chockprovides a smooth surface for the line to run over or through. Because ofthe difference in the structural design of nonstandard boats, the strengthof their deck fittings will vary widely.

E.4. Using propersized line

NOTE $$

The size of the deck hardware depends on the size of line to be used formooring docking and towing. Cleats are sized by length, and the rule ofthumb is the line should be 1/16” in diameter for each inch of cleat (3/8"line = 6" cleat, ½"line = 8" cleat.

E.5. Back upplates

All deck hardware that is used for towing should have back up plates todistribute the load over a wide area (See figure 7-37). The back up platecan be made of pressure treated hardwood or exterior grade plywood, atleast twice as thick as the largest bolt diameter. Use bolts, not screws. Aflat washer and a lock washer must be used with the bolt. The flat washeris three times the bolt diameter. If metal is used, the thickness should beat least the same as the bold diameter. The use of soft aluminum is notrecommended. Bedding compound should be used in all installations.

On Auxiliary operational facilities (as a rule of thumb) no tow should be attemptedwith smaller than 3/8" line; therefore, the smallest size cleat on a facility should be6".

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Back Up PlateFigure 7-37

E.6. Securing aline to a bitt

The procedures below describe how to secure a line to a bitt:

Step ProcedureNOTE $$ 1 Make a complete turn around the near horn (See figure 7-38).

2 Make several figure eights around both horns. (Size of line andcleats may restrict the number of turns. Minimum of 3 turns isthe standard).

3 Finish off with a round turn.

Avoid the use ofhalf-hitches,weather hitches, andlock hitches onstandard boats.

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Securing a Line to a BittFigure 7-38

E.7. Securing aline to a sampsonpost

A sampson post is a vertical timber or king post on the forward deck of aboat. They are used as a bow cleat or bitt.

Step Procedure1 Make a complete turn around the base of the sampson post (See

figure 7-39).2 Form several figure eights around the horns of the sampson post.

(Standard is 3 turns.)

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Securing a Line to a Sampson Post(figure does not show extra figure eights)

Figure 7-39

E.8. Securing aline to a standardcleat

The procedures below describe how to secure a line to a standard cleat(See figure 40).

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Step Procedure1 Make a complete turn around the cleat.2 Lead the line over the top of the cleat and around the horn to

form a figure eight.3 If possible, make two more figure eights.

Securing a Line to a Standard Cleat(figure does not show the extra figure eights)

Figure 7-40

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E.9. Securing aline to a mooringcleat

The procedures below describe how to secure a line to a mooring cleat(See figure 41).

Step Procedure1 Feed the eye of the line through the opening.2 Loop the line back over both horns and pull the line taut.

Securing a Line to a Mooring CleatFigure 7-41

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E.10. Dipping theeye

When two lines with eye splices are placed on a bollard, it may not bepossible to remove the bottom line until the top line is removed. Bydipping the eye, both lines can be placed for easy removal (See figure 42).

Step Procedure1 Place the eye of one mooring line over the bollard.2 Take the eye of the second line up through the eye of the first

line.3 Place the eye of the second line over the bollard.

Dipping the EyeFigure 7-42

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E.11. Securing atowline

The towline is a potential danger to anyone near it. Towlines should bemade up so slack can be paid out at any time or so the line can be slipped(cast off) in an emergency. Procedures for securing the towlines onstandard Coast Guard boats may be found in their respective operatormanuals. Additional information on the use of towlines is in Chapter 17.

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Appendix 7-A

Estimating the Breaking Strength andSafe Working Load of Lines

General The following paragraphs provide a detailed explanation of how toestimate the breaking strengths of particular types of lines. It alsoexplains how to use this number to figure the safe working load. Eachtype of line has a different breaking strength, and a different safe workingload.

Breaking strengthof natural line

The estimated breaking strength (BS) of a piece of manila line can befound by squaring the circumference (C) of the line and then multiplyingthat number by 900 pounds. The formula for this is: BS = C2 x 900pounds.

Example:

Suppose the circumference of a piece of manila line is 3 inches. Thebreaking strength of that line can be determined as follows:

Step Procedure1 BS = C2 x 900 pounds2 C2 = 3 x 3 = 93 BS = 9 x 900 pounds4 BS = 8100 pounds

Breaking strengthof synthetic line

Use the same basic formula to estimate the breaking strength of syntheticlines by the addition of one more step. Because synthetic lines arestronger than manila line, the number of pounds representing theirbreaking strengths is multiplied by their comparison factors (CF).

Comparison factors Comparison factors are based on the strength of a synthetic line incomparison to natural manila line. The comparison factors given in TableA-1 reveal that synthetic line is stronger than manila line.

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Line Name CF to Manila LinePolypropylene 1.4Polyethylene 1.4Polyester (Dacron) 2.0Nylon 2.5

Comparison Factors (CF) for Synthetic LineTable A-1

Estimating BS ofsynthetic line

The formula for estimating the breaking strength of synthetic line isBS = C2 x 900 x CF.

Step Procedure1 BS = C2 x 900 x CF2 C2 = 3 x 3 = 93 BS = 9 x 900 pounds x CF4 BS = 8100 pounds x CF5 CF = 2.0 for polyester (dacron) line (taken from Table A-1)6 BS = 8100 pounds x 27 BS = 16,200 pounds

Safe working loadof natural andsynthetic line

Breaking strength is the tension, measured in pounds, a line can absorbbefore it breaks. To be on the safe side you do not want to stress a lineanywhere near its breaking point. The safe working load (SWL) of theline is considerably less than its breaking strength.

As a line wears, stretches or is spliced, its breaking strength decreases.Quite naturally, this also causes a decrease in the safe working load of theline. By making a quick inspection of a piece of line and determiningwhether it is in good, average or poor condition you can calculate anestimate of the safe working load of a line. Once the condition of the lineis determined enter Table A-2 and apply the safety factor (SF) into itsbreaking strength using the formula: SWL = BS/SF.

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Condition ManilaNylon &Polyester

PolypropylenePolyethylene

Good 5 3 5Average 10 4 6

Poor 15 6 8

Safety Factors for Natural and Synthetic LinesTable A-2

SWL of manila line Figure the safe working load of a 3 inch manila line, in average condition,with a breaking strength of 8100 lbs.

Step Procedure1 Determine the condition of the line and extract the appropriate

safety factor from Table A-2. In this case SF = 10.2 SWL = BS/SF3 SWL = 8100 lbs./104 SWL = 810 lbs.

SWL of polyesterline

Figure the safe working load of a 2 inch polyester (dacron) line in poorcondition:

Step Procedure1 BS = C2 x 900 pounds x CF2 C2 = 2 x 2 = 43 BS = 4 x 900 x CF4 BS = 3600 x CF5 CF = 2 (Table A-1)6 BS = 3600 x 27 BS = 7200 pounds

Determining thecondition of line

Determine condition of line and extract the appropriate safety factor fromTable A-2:

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Step Procedure1 SF = 62 SWL = BS/SF3 SWL = 7200/64 SWL = 1200 pounds

Determining thediameter of a line

The following formulas will help when determining the diameter of a lineusing two methods:

• Converting diameter to circumference

• Converting circumference to diameter

Convert diameter tocircumference

Some sources of supply measure line by diameter. Sailors measure andrefer to line by circumference. The formula to convert diameter tocircumference is C = D x 3.1416.

Convert a diameter of ½ inch into circumference:

C = ½" x 3.1416

C = 1.5708"

C = 1½" (rounded off)

Convertcircumference todiameter

For converting circumference to diameter, you just turn the formula over;use D = C/3.1416.

Convert a circumference of 3" into a diameter.

D = 3"/3.1416

D = .955"

D = 1" (rounded off)

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Appendix 7-B

Estimating the Safe Working Load of Shackles

General There is no formula to determine the breaking strength of shackles. Usethe manufacturers specifications. Bear in mind that damaged, bent orseverely rusted shackles are unusable.

Determining theSWL

To determine the SWL of a shackle first measure the diameter (D) of theshackle at the point on the shackle shown in Figure 1-28. Technically,this is referred to as the Wire Diameter. The SWL of a shackle, in tons, iscalculated by using the formula SWL = 3 x D2.

Use 3 tons as a constant and apply it to all usable shackles.

Calculate the SWL of a shackle with a 2 inch wire diameter as follows:

Step Procedure1 SWL = 3 tons x D22 D2 = 2 x 2 = 43 SWL = 3 tons x 44 SWL = 12 tons

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Appendix 7-C

Estimating the Safe Working Load of Hooks

General Like shackles, the breaking strength of hooks is found in themanufacturers specifications or in Table 1-3. Damaged, bent, or severelyrusted hooks are unusable. The condition of a hook is either usable orunusable.

Determining theSWL

To determine the SWL of a hook measure the diameter (D).

Use a “2/3” of a ton as a constant factor and apply it to all usable hooksby using the formula SWL = 2/3 ton x D2.

Calculate the safe working load of a hook with a 2 inch diameter asfollows:

Step Procedure1 SWL = 2/3 ton x D22 D2 = 2 x 2 = 4 or 4/13 SWL = 2/3 ton x 4/14 SWL = 8/3 or 22/3 ton5 SWL = 2.66 tons

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Appendix 7-D

Eye Splice in Double Braid Line

The following series of steps (which is under copyright by Samson Ocean Systems, Inc.) isreprinted here by permission. It shows the specific steps needed to accomplish the splice forSamson double braided line. Other manufacturers of double braided line provide splicinginstructions. Request specific information for splicing from the appropriate manufacturer.

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Chapter 8: Boat Characteristics

Overview

Introduction Knowledge of your boat's characteristics is crucial in performing safe boatoperations. All crew members must be able to recognize and correctlyapply boat related terminology. They must also be able to locate any pieceof gear quickly and to operate all equipment efficiently, even in the dark.To accomplish these tasks, crew members must be familiar with the boat'slayout. Each boat has specific operational characteristics and limitations.These are outlined in the boat’s standard manuals or for non-standardboats, in the owner/operator manual. Some types of characteristics thatthe boat crew should be familiar with include:

• maximum speed

• economical cruising speed

• maximum range at various speeds

• maximum endurance of boat at cruising speed

• minimum required crew size

• maximum number of people that can be safely carried

• maximum load capacity

This section covers the basic knowledge needed to know your boat. Foradditional definitions, see the Glossary.

In this chapter These items are discussed in this chapter:

Section Title See PageA Boat Nomenclature and Terminology 8-3B Boat Construction 8-7C Watertight Integrity 8-27D General Boat Equipment 8-31E Troubleshooting Basic Mechanical Problems 8-35

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Section A. Boat Nomenclature and Terminology

A.1. General As with any profession or skill, there are special terms that mariners use.Many of these terms have a fascinating history. Fellow mariners willexpect that you are familiar with these terms and use them in your routineconversation. Many of these words will be discussed within this section.

A.2. Definitions The following are common terms used for location, position and directionaboard a boat. Figure 8-1 provides a diagram of a boat with the morecommon terms noted.

A.2.a. Bow The front end of a boat is the bow. When you move toward the bow, youare going forward; when the boat moves forward, it is going ahead.When facing the bow, the front right side is the starboard bow, and thefront left side is the port bow.

A.2.b. Amidships The central or middle area of a boat is amidships. The right center side isthe starboard beam, and the left center side is the port beam.

A.2.c. Stern The rear of a boat is the stern. When you move toward the stern, you aregoing aft. When the boat moves backwards, it is going astern. If you arestanding at the stern looking forward, you call the right rear section thestarboard quarter and the left rear section the port quarter.

A.2.d. Starboard The entire right side of a boat, from bow to stern.

A.2.e. Port The entire left side of a boat, from bow to stern.

A.2.f. Fore and aft A line, or anything else, running parallel to the centerline of a boat.

A.2.g.Athwartships

A line or anything else running from side to side.

A.2.h. Outboard From the centerline of the boat toward either port or starboard side.

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A.2.i. Inboard From either side toward the centerline. However, there is a variation inthe use of outboard and inboard when a boat is tied up alongsidesomething (e.g., pier or another vessel). The side tied up is inboard; theside away is outboard.

A.2.j. Goingtopside

Moving from a lower deck to a weather deck or upper deck.

A.2.k. Goingbelow

Moving from an upper deck to a lower deck.

A.2.l. Going aloft Going up into the boat's rigging.

A.2.m. Weatherdeck

Deck exposed to the elements (weather).

A.2.n. Lifelines Lifelines or railings, erected around the edge of weather decks, are alltechnically called lifelines although they may have different proper names.

A.2.o. Windward In the direction from which the wind is blowing; toward the wind.

A.2.p. Leeward Opposite point from which the wind is blowing; away from the wind.Pronounced “loo-urd”.

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Position and Direction Aboard BoatsFigure 8-1

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Section B. Boat Construction

Overview

Introduction Boat construction covers terms that the boat crew will use on a daily basisin normal conversations and in operational situations. Properunderstanding of these terms and concepts has importance that aninexperienced sailor may overlook.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See Page

Hull Types 8-8Keel 8-14Principle Boat Parts 8-15Hatches and Doors 8-22Boat Measurements 8-24Displacement 8-25

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Hull Types

B.1. General The hull is the main body of a boat. It consists of a structural frameworkand a skin or shell plating. The hull may be constructed of many differentmaterials, the most common being metal or fiberglass. A metal skin isusually welded to the structural framework, although riveting issometimes used. A vessel could be monohull or multi-hull, such ascatamarans and trimarans. The three basic types of hull forms based onvessel speed are:

• Displacement hull

• Planing hull

• Semi-displacement hull

B.2. Factorsinfluencing hullshapes

Many factors influence hull shapes and affect the boat’s buoyancy (itsability to float) and stability (its ability to remain upright). Factors thatinfluence hull shapes are discussed as follows:

Factor DescriptionFlare Flare is the outward turn of the hull as the sides of the

hull come up from the water line. As the boat islaunched into the water, the flare increases the boat’sdisplacement and creates a positive buoyant force tofloat the boat.

Tumble home Tumble home is the reverse of flare and is the shape ofthe hull as it moves out going from the gunwale to thewater line. This feature is most noticeable when viewingthe transom of an older classic cruiser.

Camber A deck usually curves athwartships, making it higher atthe centerline than at the gunwales so the water flowsoff the deck. This curvature is called camber.

Sheer Sheer is the curvature of the main deck from the stemto the stern. When the sheer is pronounced and the bowof the boat is higher than the main deck at amidship,additional buoyancy is provided in the bow. Reservebuoyancy is the additional flotation provided by flareand sheer.

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Chine The turn of the boat’s hull below the water line is calledthe chine. It is “soft” if it is rounded and “hard” if it issquared off. Chine affects the boat’s speed on turningcharacteristics.

Transom The transom at the stern of the boat is either wide, flat,or curved. The shape of the stern affects the speed, hullresistance, and performance of the boat.

Length onWater LineLength

The boat’s length on water line (LWL) is the distancefrom the bow to the stern, measured at the water linewhen the boat is stationary. Note that this lengthchanges as the boat rides high or low in the water.Another way of measuring the length of the boat is thelength of the craft from its stem to its stern in a straightline. This is termed length over all (LOA) and does notchange according to the way the boat sits in the water.

Beam andBreadth

Beam and breadth are measures of a boat’s width.Beam is the measurement of the widest part of the hull.Breadth is the measurement of a frame from its portinside edge to its starboard inside edge.a) Molded beam is the distance between outside

surfaces of the shell plating of the hull at its widestpoint.

b) Extreme breadth is the distance between outsideedges of the frames at the widest point of the hull.

Draft Draft is the depth of the boat from the actual waterlineto the bottom of its keel.

Draft,Appendage

Draft appendage is the depth of the boat from theactual water line to the bottom of its keel or otherpermanent projection (e.g., propeller, rudder, skeg,etc.), if such a projection is deeper than the keel. Thedraft is also the depth of water necessary to float theboat. The draft varies according to how the boat lies inthe water.

Trim Trim is a relative term that refers to the way the boatsets in the water and describes generally its stability andbuoyancy. A change in trim may be defined as thechange in the difference between drafts forward and aft.A boat is trimmed by the bow when the draft forwardincreases and the draft is greater than the stern draft. Aboat is trimmed by the stern if it is down by the stern.

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B.3. Displacementhull

A displacement hull boat pushes away (displaces) water allowing the hullto settle down into the water. Underway, the hull pushes out this water,creating waves. (See Figure 8-2) The water separates at the bow andcloses at the stern. Tremendous forces work against a displacement hull asthe power pushing it and the boat's speed both increase. At maximumdisplacement speed, there is a distinct bow and stern wave. The length ofthese waves depends upon the boat's length and speed. (The longer theboat the longer the wave length.) The bow and the stern ride lower in thewater as you increase speed and the water level alongside, amidshipsbecomes lower than that of the surrounding water.

WARNING II

This is caused by the increase in the velocity of the water flowing underthe boat and its interaction with the bow and stern wave. As the boattravels along, it rides in a depression created by its own passage. Thedisplacement hull vessel's maximum speed is determined by the vessel'swaterline length. Heavy displacement hulls cannot exceed a speed of 1.34times the square root of their waterline length without requiring excessivepower. This speed is known as critical speed. When towing a vessel, youmust be careful not to tow beyond that vessel’s critical speed. For detailson towing displacement hulls, see Chapter 17, Towing.

When towing avessel, be carefulnot to tow beyondthe vessel’sdesign speed.

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Displacement HullsFigure 8-2

B.4. Planing hull At rest the planing hull and the displacement hull both displace the wateraround them. The planing hull reacts nearly the same as a displacementhull when it initially gets underway - it takes considerable power toproduce a small increase in speed. But at a certain point, external forcesacting on the shape cause an interesting effect - the hull is lifted up ontothe surface of the water. (See Figure 8-3) The planing hull skims alongthe surface of the water whereas the displacement hull always forceswater around it. This is called planing. Once "on top," the power/speedratio is considerably altered--very little power increase results in a largeincrease in speed. You must apply power gradually when going from thedisplacement mode to the planing mode or from the planing mode to thedisplacement mode. When you decrease the power gradually, the hullmakes an even,

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steady transition, like slowly moving your hand from above the water'ssurface, through it, and into the liquid below. However, if power israpidly decreased the transition will be a rough one, for the hull will slapthe surface of the water like the slap resulting by hitting a liquid surfacewith your hand.

Planing HullsFigure 8-3

Additionally, the rapid "re-entry" into the displacement mode from abovethe surface, through the surface, and back into the water causes rapiddeceleration as the forces in the water exert pressure against the hull. Theeffect is like rapidly braking an automobile.

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B.5. Semi-displacement hull

The semi-displacement hull is a combination of characteristics of thedisplacement hull and the planing hull. Many Coast Guard boats are thistype (e.g., 44 ft MLB). This means that up to a certain power level andspeed (power/speed ratio), the hull remains in the displacement mode.Beyond this point, the hull is raised to a partial plane. Essentially, thesemi-displacement hull, like the displacement hull, always remains in thewater; it never gets "on top." When in the displacement mode, thepower/speed ratio is similar to the power/speed ratio described above forthe displacement hull. When in the semi-planing mode, it is affected by acombination of forces for the displacement mode and some for the planingmode. Thus, while a small power increase will increase speed, the amountof resulting speed will not be as great as the same power increase wouldproduce for a planing hull.

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Keel

B.6. General The keel is literally the backbone of the boat. It runs fore and aft along thecenter bottom of the boat.

B.7. Keel parts The following are all integral parts of the keel.

B.7.a. Frames Frames are attached to the keel which extend athwartships (from side toside). The skin of the boat is attached to the frames. The keel and theframes strengthen the hull to resist external forces and distribute the boat'sweight.

B.7.b. Stem The stem is an extension of the forward end of the keel. Although thereare a number of common stem shapes, all are normally slanted forward(raked) at an upward angle to reduce water friction.

B.7.c. Sternpost The sternpost is a vertical extension of the aft end of the keel.

B.8. Keel types There are many types of keels. However, in metal boats, there are twotypes of particular interest: the bar keel and the flat plate keel.

B.8.a. Bar keel The bar keel is popular because its stiffeners (vertical or upright memberswhich increases strength) protects the boat's hull plating if the boatgrounds on a hard bottom. It also reduces rolling in much the same wayas the more modern bilge keel does. The bilge keel is a fin or stabilizerfastened horizontally to the turn of the bilge. A disadvantage of the barkeel is that, because it extends below the bottom of the boat, it increasesthe boat's draft.

B.8.b. Flat or flatplate keel

It consists of an "I" beam fastened to the flat plate or it may be built-upfrom a "rider plate" - a metal plate reinforcing the upper or inner surfaceof the keel, a vertical keel, and a flat keel. The flat keel, with its verticalkeel and rider plate, is built within the boat's hull.

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Principle Boat Parts

B.9. Bow The shape of a boat's bow, its profile, form, and construction determinehull resistance as the boat advances through the water. Hull resistancedevelops from friction and from the wave the hull makes as it moves inthe water. Wave making resistance depends on the boat's speed.

The bow of a boat must be designed with enough buoyancy so it lifts withthe waves and does not cut through them. The bow flare provides thisbuoyancy.

Boats intended for operation in rough seas and heavy weather have "full"bows. The bow increases the buoyancy of the forward part of a boat anddeflects water and spray. When a boat is heading into a wave, the bowwill initially start to cut into the wave. It may be immersed momentarily ifthe seas are rough. As the bow flare cuts into the wave it causes the waterto fall away from a boat's stern, shifting the center of buoyancy to moveforward from the center of gravity. The bow lifts with the wave and thewave passes under the boat, shifting the center of buoyancy aft. Thisaction causes the bow to drop back down and the vessel achieves a levelattitude.

B.10. Stern The shape of the stern affects the speed, resistance, and performance ofthe boat. It also affects the way water is forced to the propellers.

The design of the stern is critical in following seas where the stern is thefirst part of a boat to meet the waves. If the following waves lift the sterntoo high, the bow may be buried in the sea. The force of the wave willpush the stern causing it to pivot around toward the bow. If this is notcontrolled, the result can be that a boat pitch poles or broaches.

B.10.a. Roundedtype stern

The rounded, cruiser type stern presents less flat surface area for afollowing sea to push upon (See Figure 8-4).

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Rounded Cruiser Type SternFigure 8-4

B.10.b. Cruiser typestern

The cruiser type stern tends to split the waves of a following sea allowingit to pass forward along each side of the boat. Thus the wave hasminimum impact on the attitude of the vessel and provides additionalbuoyancy for the stern. Always steer into any sideways movement of thestern. For example, when the stern slips to starboard, turn to starboard. Itis particularly important that these corrections be made quickly andaccurately in short, choppy following seas. Transom sterns provide alarger surface area for the seas to push upon and should not be exposed toheavy following seas or surf conditions (See Figure 8-5).

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Transom SternFigure 8-5

B.11. Rudder The rudder controls the direction of the boat and may vary widely in size,design, and method of construction. The shape of the stern, the number ofpropellers, and the characteristics of the boat determine the type of ruddera boat has. Rudder types are shown in Figure 8-6:

• Balanced - blade about half forward and half aft of the rudder post

• Semi-balanced - more than half of the blade aft of the rudder post

• Unbalanced - blade entirely aft of the rudder post

Rudder TypesFigure 8-6

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B.12. Propeller Most boats are driven by one or more screw propellers which move inspirals somewhat like the threads on a screw. That is why the propeller iscommonly referred to as a screw. The most common propellers are builtwith three and four blades. The propeller on a single-screw boat typicallyturns in a clockwise direction (looking from aft forward) as the boatmoves forward. Such screws are referred to as "right-handed." On twinscrew boats, the screws turn in opposite directions, rotating outward fromthe centerline of the boat. The port screw is "left-handed" and turnscounter-clockwise. The starboard screw is "right-handed" and turnsclockwise.

B.12.a. Propellerparts

A propeller consists of blades and a hub. The area of the blade down atthe hub is called the root and its outer edge is called the tip (see Figure 8-7).

B.12.b. Propelleredge

The edge of the blade that strikes the water first is the leading edge; theopposite is the following edge. The diameter of the screw, the circlemade by its tips and its circumference, is called the tip circle. Each bladehas a degree of twist from root to tip called pitch (see Figure 8-7).

B.12.c. Pitch Pitch is the distance a propeller advances in one revolution with no slip(see Figure 8-7). Generally, less pitch in the same diameter propellermakes it easier for the engine to reach its preferred maximum RPM; thus,like putting a car in first gear, more power (and sometimes more speed) isavailable. Similarly, (like third gear in a car) more pitch may give morespeed, but lower RPMs gives less power. Optimum performance isobtained when pitch is matched to the optimum design speed (RPM) ofthe engine.

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Parts of a PropellerFigure 8-7

B.13. Frames As previously stated, it is the framing that gives the hull its strength.Frames are of two types:

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B.13.a. Transverseframes

Watertight bulkheads or web frames are located at certain points in thehull to further increase the strength of the hull. Just as the keel is thebackbone of the hull, transverse frames and are often referred to as ribs.Transverse frames extend athwartships and are perpendicular (vertical orupright) to the keel and are spaced at specified distances. (See Figure 8-8). They vary in size from the bow to the stern giving the boat hull itsdistinct shape when the skin is attached. They are numbered from thebow to the stern to help you quickly identify a particular location in theinterior and, in the event of damage to the hull, to isolate the area ofdamage.

Transverse Framing SystemFigure 8-8

B.13.b.Longitudinal frames

Longitudinal frames provide hull strength along the length of the hull(fore and aft). (See Figure 8-9). As you will note, they run parallel to thekeel and at right angles to the transverse frames. In addition tostrengthening the hull, the top longitudinal frames provide a skeletalstructure over which deck plating is laid.

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Longitudinal Framing SystemFigure 8-9

B.14. Decks A deck is a seagoing floor and provides strength to the hull by reinforcingthe transverse frames and deck beams. The top deck of a boat is called theweather deck because it is exposed to the elements and is watertight. Ingeneral, decks have a slight downward slope from the bow. The slopemakes any water taken aboard run aft. A deck also has a rounded,athwartship curve called camber. The two low points of this curve are onthe port and starboard sides of the boat where the weather deck meets thehull. Water that runs aft down the sheer line is forced to the port orstarboard side of the boat by the camber. When the water reaches one ofthe sides, it flows overboard through holes, or scuppers, in the siderailings.

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Hatches and Doors

B.15. Hatches If decks are seagoing floors, then hatches are seagoing doors. In order fora bulkhead (a seagoing wall) with a hatch in it to be watertight, the hatchmust be watertight. A weather deck hatch is made watertight by sealing itinto a raised framework called a coaming. Hatches operate with quick-acting devices such as wheels or handles or they may be secured withindividual dogs (see Figure 8-10).

Water Tight HatchFigure 8-10

B.16. Scuttles Scuttles are small openings. A "scuttle cover," fitted with a gasket anddogs, is used to secure the scuttle. A tool called a "T-handle wrench" isused to tighten down the scuttle cover dogs.

B.17. Doors Watertight doors are designed to resist as much pressure as the bulkheadsthrough which they provide access. Some doors have dogs that must beindividually closed and opened; others, called "quick-acting watertightdoors" have handwheels or a handle which operate all dogs at once.

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B.18. Gaskets Rubber gaskets form tight seals on most watertight closure devices. Thesegaskets, mounted on the covering surface of the closure device (e.g.,door, hatch, scuttle cover), are pressed into a groove around the covering.The gaskets are sealed tight by pressing against a fixed position "knifeedge."

B.19. Knife edges

CAUTION !

Watertight closures must have clean, bright, unpainted, smooth knifeedges for the gaskets to press against. A well-fitted watertight closuredevice with new gaskets will still leak if knife-edges are not properlymaintained.

B.20. Interior The interior of a boat is compartmentalized into bulkheads, decks, andhatches. The hatches are actually "doors" through the bulkheads. With thehatches closed, the space between them becomes watertight and is calleda watertight compartment (see Figure 8-11). These watertightcompartments are extremely important. Without them the boat has nowatertight integrity and a hole anywhere in the hull will cause it to sink.By dividing the hull into several watertight compartments, the watertightintegrity of the boat is significantly increased. One or more of thesecompartments may flood without causing the boat to sink. A boat couldbe made unsinkable if its hull could be divided into enough watertightcompartments. Unfortunately, excessive compartmentation wouldinterfere with the engineering spaces and restrict your movement in theinterior spaces.

Watertight CompartmentFigure 8-11

Scuttles must be secured for watertightness at all times except when they are openfor inspection, cleaning, or painting. They must never be left open overnight orwhen crew members are not actually working.

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Boat Measurements

B.21. General There are specific terms for the length and width of a boat and alsospecific methods for determining these measurements. The more commonboat measurements are discussed below.

B.22. Overalllength

The overall length of a boat is technically called the length overall (LOA)and is the distance from the foremost to the aftermost points on the boat'shull.

B.23. Waterlinelength

The waterline length of a boat is technically called the length on water line(LWL). It is the distance between fore and aft where the surface of thewater touches the hull when a boat is normally loaded.

B.24. Beam andbreadth

Beam and breadth are measures of a boat's width. Beam refers to thedistance from the outside hull plating on one side of the boat to theoutside hull plating on the other side. Breadth refers to the distancebetween the outside edge of a frame on one side of the boat to the outsideedge of the same numbered frame on the opposite side.

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Displacement

B.25. General Displacement is the weight of a boat and is measured in long tons (2,240lbs) or pounds.

B.26. Gross tons The entire cubic capacity of a boat expressed in tons of 100 cubic feet.

B.25. Net tons The carrying capacity of a boat expressed in tons of 100 cubic feet. It iscalculated by measuring the cubic content of the cargo and passengerspaces.

B.27. Deadweighttons

Deadweight is the difference between the light displacement and themaximum loaded displacement of a boat and is expressed in long tonsor pounds.

B.27.a. Lightdisplacement

Light displacement is the weight of the boat excluding fuel, water, outfit,cargo, crew, and passengers.

B.27.b. Loadeddisplacement

Loaded displacement is the weight of the boat including fuel, water,outfit, cargo, crew, and passengers.

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Section C. Watertight Integrity

Overview

Introduction Watertight integrity describes a compartment or fitting that is designed toprevent the passage of water into it. An important concern in boatoperations is to ensure the watertight integrity of the vessel. A boat maysustain heavy damage and remain afloat if watertight integrity ismaintained. Doors, hatches, and scuttle covers must be securely doggedwhile the boat is underway and while it is moored and unattended by crewmembers.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See Page

Closing and Opening Watertight Doors and Hatches 8-28Entering a Closed Compartment After Damage 8-29

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Closing and Opening Watertight Doors and Hatches

C.1. General Watertight doors and hatches will retain their efficiency longer andrequire less maintenance if they are properly closed and opened asdescribed below.

C.2. Closing The procedure for closing a watertight door is as follows:

Step Procedure1 Begin by tightening a dog that is opposite the hinges.2 Place just enough pressure on the dog to keep the door shut.3 Tighten up the other dogs evenly to obtain uniform pressure all

around the closing device.

For quick-acting watertight doors, simply turn the wheels or handles inthe correct direction (clockwise).

C.3. Opening If the dogs on watertight doors and hatches open individually, open thedog nearest the hinge first. This keeps the closing device from springingand makes loosening the other dogs easier.

For quick-acting watertight doors, turn the wheels or handles in thecorrect direction (counterclockwise).

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Entering a Closed Compartment After Damage

C.4. General

NOTE $$

Do not open watertight doors, hatches, and scuttle covers on a damagedboat until you determine the following:

• flooding did not occur or, if flooded,

• further flooding will not occur if you open the closure.

CAUTION !

Suspect flooding ifair escapes whenyou release thedogs on a door orhatch.

Extreme caution is always necessary when opening compartments below thewaterline near hull damage.

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Section D. General Boat Equipment

Overview

D.1. Introduction All boats should carry basic equipment for the routine procedures, such astying up, or anchoring. There is also equipment that is needed to conductspecific operations, such as search and rescue, towing, or pollutionresponse. Crew members must be familiar with the use of the equipmentcarried on board and where it is located. A complete listing of requiredequipment is contained in the Boat Outfit List. Each type of boat has itsown outfit list. You will find outfit lists for all standard Coast Guard boatsin their boat type manuals. For Coast Guard utility boats (UTBs) andmotor lifeboats (MLBs), they are also in the Motor Lifeboat (MLB) &Utility Boat (UTB) Standardization Program Manual, COMDTINSTM16114.24 (series). Each Auxiliary vessel should have a boat outfit of thetypes of items listed below.

D.2. General boatequipment list

The general equipment found on Coast Guard boats and a brief statementof the purpose of each item is provided below.

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Item PurposeAnchors For anchoring in calm, moderate, and heavy weather.Anchor Lines Provides scope to prevent the anchor from dragging.

Enables retrieval of the anchor. Serves as an additionaltowline if necessary.

Chafing Chain Assists in preventing chafing of the anchor line on thebottom.

Screw PinShackle

Attaches chafing chain to shank of anchor.

Swivel Allows anchor line to spin freely.Thimble Prevents chafing of anchor line at connection point with

associated hardwareTowline Used for towing asternAlongsideLines

Used for alongside towing, joining to kicker hooks,passing a pump, etc.

Heaving Lines(75' to 100')

Used for passing a towline when a close approach isnot possible

Grapnel Hookwith 100' ofline

Used for recovering objects from the water.

Wood BoatHook

For reaching dockside lines, fending boat from boat,and recovering objects from water.

Kicker Hook Attaches to trailer eyebolt on small boats for towing,weighing anchor, or disabled boats, etc.

Shackles For weighing a disabled boat's anchor, attaching towingbridles to towlines, attaching towlines to trailer eyebolt,etc.

Lead Line(SoundingPole)

Used in determining water depth and bottom type.

First Aid Kit For emergency treatment of injuries suffered by crewmembers or survivors.

PersonnelSurvival Kits

Used by crew members in the event of a capsizing orperson overboard.

Heavy WeatherCrew SafetyBelt

For personnel safety during heavy weather or surfoperations. Secures a crew member to the boat.

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Item PurposePFDs, eachwith a distresssignal light, awhistle, andretroreflectivetape

Provides personal flotation support. Keeps the head ofan unconscious or injured person out of the water.Worn by crew members and given to survivors who arebrought on board. Also worn by survivors who remainon their own boat when it is in tow.

Ring Buoy, 30"diameter

Used during person overboard emergencies.

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Section E. Troubleshooting Basic Mechanical Problems

Overview

Introduction

NOTE $$

Troubleshooting mechanical problems is typically the responsibility of theboat engineer, if one is assigned. However, not all Coast Guard boats orAuxiliary facilities deploy with a dedicated boat engineer. Boats withoutengineers should be able to provide basic help for themselves and thosevessels that they are trying to assist. Often, a simple mechanical fix canavoid a long tow or other loss of use of a Coast Guard boat. The primarysource for a boat's maintenance and repair requirements should be theoperator manuals that come with the boat.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See Page

Troubleshooting Diesel Engines 8-36Troubleshooting Gasoline Inboard Engine (ExceptOutboards)

8-41

Casualties Common to Both Diesel and Gasoline Engines 8-44Troubleshooting the Outboard 8-50Steering Casualty 8-52Basic Engine Maintenance for Auxiliary Facilities 8-53

In all casualties keep the station/unit command advised of the problem andupdates of changing status. If in restricted water, consider anchoring.

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Troubleshooting Diesel Engines

E.1. General Diesel engines are very common as inboard engines for boats. They arevery reliable when properly maintained. Typical problems, their possiblecauses, and potential solutions are outlined below.

Problem Cause Solution

1. Engine will notturn over when

Main power switch off. ð Turn main power switch on.

starter button ispushed.

Battery cable loose orcorroded.

ð Tighten, clean, or replace cable,terminals.

Starter motor cable loose orcorroded.

ð Tighten, clean, or replace cable.

Batteries are low or dead. ð Charge or replace batteries.

Engine seized hydraulic lock(fuel or water in cylinders).

ð Remove injectors, bar engine overby hand after (to relieve pressure& prevent internal damage).

Misalignment of controls,neutral safety switch.

ð Make appropriate adjustment,realign controls.

Non-operation or chatteringsolenoid switch.

ð Replace, repair cable. Replacesolenoid. Check battery voltage.

2. Irregular engineoperation.(Engine

Strainers & fuel filterclogged.

ð Clean, replace, or purge air(bleed).

runs unevenly orstalls.)

Lines & fitting leaking. ð Check fuel lines & fittings forleaks, tighten, or replace.

Insufficient fuel/aeration offuel.

ð Sound tanks-shift suction, refuel ifnecessary.

Binding fuel controllinkages.

ð Inspect and adjust.

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Insufficient intake of air. ð Inspect intake for obstructionsfrom air silencer. Checkemergency air shutdown forpossible restriction.

3. Engineoverspeeds oroverruns.

Loose or jammed linkage. ð Tighten or free linkage.

If engine RPMs increase, aninternal engine malfunctionhas occurred. A stuckinjector, a clutch thatslipped into neutral, a lostprop, a ruptured lube oilseal could be the cause.Most engines overspeedafter someone hasperformed maintenance. Forthis reason, it is mostimportant that the operatorassess what is occurringpromptly. Regardless, whenthe engine overspeedsfollow the procedure in thenext column.

ð If an engine appears to beoperating normally at cruisingspeed but fails to slow down asthe throttle is being returned toneutral, do not place the throttlein neutral until a determination ismade that the engine is in fact outof control (i.e., check for throttlelinkage that became detached. Bykeeping the engine in gear it willprevent it from being destroyed.Secure the engine by followingthe steps below:

If overspeed continues pull enginestops, (kill switch). If engineRPMs still overspeed, shut offfuel supply. If problem continuesstuff rags against air silencer. As alast resort, shoot CO2 into the airintake.

4. Engine oilpressure high.

Incorrect grade of oil. ð Monitor and if pressure becomestoo high, secure engine.

Oil filters dirty. ð Change oil filters.

Cold engine not up tooperating temperature.

ð Warm up engine.

Relief valve stuck. ð Adjust, remove, or clean.

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External oil leaks. ð Tighten connections if possible.Add oil monitor and secure engineif necessary.

Internal oil leaks. ð Secure engine.

Worn or damaged engineparts.

ð Monitor, add oil, and secureengine if excessive consumptioncontinues.

5. Engine surges. Air in fuel system. ð Secure engine. Bleed air out offuel system.

Clogged fuelstrainers/filters.

ð Switch/change fuel filters.

Aeration of fuel (from heavyweather).

ð Shift to lower fuel function.

Governor instability. ð Adjust the buffer screw (G.M.)Check free movement of flyweights.

Loose throttle linkage. ð Tighten linkage.

6. Marine(reduction) gearfails to

Loss of gear oil. ð Add gear oil. Check and correctleaks.

engage. Strainer/filter clogged. ð Clean strainer, change filter.

Loose, broken maladjustedlinkage.

ð Inspect and correct, as necessary.

7. Unusual noise inreduction gear.

Loss of gear oil. ð Secure engine, check gear oil.Refill and resume operation fortrail.

Worn out reduction gear. ð Secure engine.

Misalignment of gear. ð Secure engine.

8. Loss of gear oilpressure toreduction gear.

Loss of gear oil. ð Inspect all high pressure lines forleaks and repair. If unable torepair, secure engine.

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9. Temperature ofengine coolanthigher thannormal.

Thermostat faulty,expansion tank cap faulty,leaky hoses, etc.

ð Inspect all lines for leaks andrepair.

10. Engine smokes

a. Black or graysmoke

Incompletely burned fuel. ð High exhaust back pressure or arestricted air inlet causesinsufficient air for combustion andwill result in incompletely burnedfuel. High exhaust back pressureis caused by faulty exhaust pipingor muffler obstruction and ismeasured at the exhaust manifoldoutlet with a manometer, a metergauge which measures differentialpressure.

Replace faulty parts. Restricted airinlet to the engine cylinders iscaused by clogged cylinder linerports, air cleaner or blower airinlet screen. Clean these items.Check the emergency stop tomake sure that it is completelyopen and readjust if necessary.

Excessive fuel or irregularfuel distribution.

ð Check for improperly timedinjectors and improperlypositioned injector rack controllevers. Time the fuel injectors andperform the appropriate governortune up.

Replace faulty injectors if thiscondition continues. Avoidlugging the engine as this willcause incomplete combustion.

Improper grade of fuel. ð Check for use of an impropergrade of fuel.

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b. Blue smoke. Lubricating oil being burned(blow by valves/seals).

ð Check for internal lubricating oilleaks.

Conduct compression test.

Check valve and rings.

Bad oil seals in theturbocharger.

ð Return to mooring.

c. White smoke. Misfiring cylinders. ð Check for faulty injectors andreplace as necessary.

Cold engine. ð Allow engine to warm under alight load.

Water in the fuel. ð Drain off strainers/filters. Stripfuel tanks.

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Troubleshooting Gasoline Inboard Engines

E.2. Indicators Normal operation indicators are:

a. Ease of starting.

b. Engine reaches specified RPMs at full throttle.

c. Correct shift and reverse RPMs.

d. Smooth idle.

e. Correct operating temperatures.

f. Adequate cooling water discharge and kill switch.

g. Smooth acceleration from idle to full RPMs.

E.3. Basic troubleshooting

An initial quick check of the following may reveal a simple fix for aproblem that does not appear simple at first:

a. A visual inspection for obvious damage.

b. A rough compression check can be accomplished by removing aspark plug and placing a finger over the opening and cranking theengine.

c. Check the spark plugs for fouling.

d. Check ignition system for spark.

e. Check linkages for adjustments.

f. Check neutral/start switch.

g. Check gear case and lubricants in the engine.

E.4. Repairsadvice

The manufacturer's technical manual should be consulted for alladjustments and specifications. Use the following examples as a guide butalways follow the specific engine's technical manual.

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Problem Check

1. Engine stopssuddenly after aperiod ofoperation.

Inspect for obvious damage of engine componentssuch as loose wires, leaking fuel lines, leaking ofcoolant, excessive heat. Check ignition system forbroken or loose wiring, distributor cap, points, orcoil. Check for clogged fuel filters, quality/quantityof fuel.

2. Engine stopssuddenly withno spark tospark plugs.

Inspect for obvious damage, check the ignitionsystem for broken or loose wiring, distributor cap,points, or coil.

3. Engine stops,restarts whencool and stopsagain when hot.

Have the ignition coil and condenser checked out;they may be breaking down when hot.

4. Engine stopsafter a period ofrough unevenoperation.

Inspect for obvious damage. Check the ignitionsystem for broken or loose wiring, distributor cap,points, or coil. Check the battery, ignition timing,and the fuel filter.

5. Engine runs byspurts, andstops with thefuel filter clean.

Check the fuel tank and fuel lines. Check theignition system for obvious damage. Check ignitiontiming and points. Check the fuel pump for properoperation.

6. Engine runs byspurts, stopsand water ispresent in thefuel filter.

Clean fuel filter. Check the fuel tank for presenceof water and drain if necessary. If the carburetor isfilled with water. It must also be drained. Takeappropriate action safety precautions to avoid fireexplosion.

WARNING II

7. Engine misses,gallops, spits,backfires andhas a loss ofpower.

Inspect for obvious damage. Carburetor may bedirty. Check ignition system for broken or loosewiring, distributor cap, rotor points and coil. Checkfuel filter and fuel lines. Check for plugged vent.

Beware of fuel vapors before starting engine.

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8. Engine startshard, especiallyin cold weather.

Battery voltage may be low. Check ignition timingand points. Check ignition system for obviousdamage. Exhaust valves may be burned. May haveto change to a lighter engine oil.

9. Engine pops andpings in exhaustpipe at allspeeds.

Exhaust valves may be burned, worn piston ringsor worn valve guides. Time for engine overhaul.Timing may be off. Too low octane fuel.

10. Starter turnsengine butengine will notstart.

Check fuel level. Inspect for obvious damage toignition system, broken or loose wiring, distributorcap, rotor points, or coil. Check ignition timing andpoints. Check fuel pump.

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Casualties Common to Both Diesel and Gasoline Engines

E.5. General Diesel and gasoline engines, though both run on a type of petroleum,operate in different ways. However, there are common problems, causes,and solutions that apply to both.

Problem Cause Solution1. Starter whines.

Engine doesn’tcrank over,doesn’t engageStarter relaymay

Defective starter. Bendix is notengaged. Defective starterrelay.

ð Call for assistance. Replace orrepair starter or relay. Checkbendix on return to dock.

chatter. Low battery voltage. ð Check battery cables for looseconnection (or corrosion) tostarter. Charge or replace battery.

2. Engine fails tostart with starterturning

Fuel stop closed. ð Open it.

over. Fuel shutoff valve closed. ð Open it.

Clogged air cleaner. ð Remove and clean air cleaner.

Fuel supply exhausted. ð Refill fuel tanks, bleed and primesystem.

Clogged strainer. ð Shift strainer and clean, bleed off.

Fuel filters clogged. ð Shift and replace elements, bleedair off.

Clogged/crimped restrictedfuel line.

ð Replace or repair fuel line.

Inoperable fuel pump. ð Replace.

Emergency air shut off blowertripped.

ð Reset.

Clogged air intake. ð Remove, clean, or replace.

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Low battery voltage causesslow cranking.

ð Charge battery or replace.

Cold engine. ð Check hot start.

3. Enginetemperaturehigh.

Closed or partially closed seasuction valve.

ð Check raw water overboarddischarge; if little or none, checksea suction valve. Open it.

NOTE $$

Dirty plugged raw waterstrainer. (Especially in shallowwater.)

ð Replace strainer.

Broken raw water hose. ð Secure engine, replace hose.

Broken or loose raw waterpump drive belt.

ð Secure engine, replace or tightenbelt.

Faulty raw water pump. ð Call for assistance.

Clogged heat exchanger. ð Inspect heat exchanger.

No/low water in expansiontank (fresh water system).

ð Handle the same as for a carradiator-open with cautionreleasing pressure beforeremoving cap. With enginerunning add fresh water.

Broken fresh water hose. ð Secure engine, replace, add freshwater.

Broken belts/drive fresh watersystem.

ð Treat same as raw water system.

For all high temperature situations the immediate action is to place the throttle inneutral then look for the probable cause.

When an overheated engine must be secured, turn the engine over periodically tokeep it from seizing.

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Faulty water pump,fresh water system.

ð Call for assistance.

Thermostat stuck,fresh water system.

ð Secure engine, remove thermostat, addfresh water.

Water in lube oil. ð Check lube oil for “milky” color. If found,secure engine.

Blown head gasket. ð Secure engine, lock shaft, return tomooring.

Engine overload(towing too big avessel or towing toofast.)

ð Reduce engine speed.

Ice clogged seastrainers (especiallyduring operation inslush ice.)

ð Shift sea strainer, open deicing valve.

Air bound sea chest. ð Open/clear sea chest vent valve.

Rubber impeller onraw water pump isinoperable.

ð Renew.

4. Engine lube oilpressure fails.

Lube oil level low. ð If above red line, check oil, add if needed.If below red line, secure engine.

External oil leak. ð Tighten fittings if possible. If not, secureengine.

Lube oil dilution. ð Secure engine if beyond 5% fuel dilution.

Lube oil gaugedefective.

ð Take load off engine, if applicable, checkto confirm if gauge appears to operatenormally.

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Mechanical damage toengine.

ð Secure engine.

5. No oil pressure. Lube oil pump failure. ð Secure engine. Repeat all procedures foritem #4 above.

Defective gauge. ð Verify that failure is only in gauge.Otherwise secure engine.

6. Loss ofelectrical power.

Short circuit/looseconnections causingtripped circuit breakeror blown fuse.

ð Check for shorts/grounds. Reset circuitbreakers, replace fuses as necessary.

Corroded wiringconnections

ð Clean or replace cables/wires.

Overloaded circuit. ð Secure all unnecessary circuits, resetcircuit breakers, replace fuses.

Dead battery ð Charge or replace battery.

7. Alternatorindicator lighton.

Loose/broken belt. ð Replace/tighten belt.

Loose terminalconnections.

ð Inspect and tighten as necessary.

Defective alternatoror regulator.

ð Replace defective item.

REGARDLESS OF CAUSE, FOLLOW PROCEDURES BELOW.

Packing too tight. ð Reduce speed, but do not secure engine orshaft.

Bent shaft. ð Reduce speed, check hull for damage orleaks.

Valve to sternclosed/restriction inthe line.

ð Loosen packing nuts by turning the twonuts securing spacer plate.

When the housing is cool, tighten the twonuts on the space plate until a discharge ofabout 10 drops of water per minute isobtained.

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In cases where nuts will not back, use rawwater from a bucket, wet rag and place onshaft packing housing.

Maintain watch on water flow (step #3)and adjust discharge as needed.

Check coolness by placing the back ofyour hand on the packing gland housing.

8. Shaft vibration. REGARDLESS OF CAUSE FOLLOW THE PROCEDUREBELOW.

Damaged or fouledpropeller.

ð Place throttles in neutral if possible.

Bent shaft. ð Reduce speed, check hull for damage orleaks.

Cutlass bearing worn. ð Check for line fouled in the propeller orshaft.

Engine or shaft out ofalignment.

ð Slowly increase speed on engine. On twinpropeller boats, do one engine at a time tofigure out which shaft is vibrating.

If vibration continues even at low speeds,secure the engine or engines involved.

If engines are secured, lock the shafts.

9. Engine roomfire.

FOR ALL FIRES FOLLOW THE PROCEDURE BELOW.

a. Petroleumbased.

Oil and grease inbilges.

ð Secure engines, turn off fuel at the tank ifpossible.

Fuel or lube oil spill. ð Call for assistance at earliest opportunity.

Improper containersof flammable liquids.

ð Secure electrical power to and from engineroom.

Improper venting ofengine room beforestarting engine.

ð Use any available portable fire extinguisher(Purple K, CO2, etc.)

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Seal compartment.

b. Electricalfires.

ð Turn off electricity if possible. Select theproper extinguished agent and employ.

10. Engine stopssuddenly andwill not turnthrough a fullrevolution.

ð Check for an obstruction within thecylinder such as water or a broken, bentor shut valve.

11. Engine stopsfiring hot andwon’t turnover whencool.

ð The engine seized for one reason oranother and must be overhauled.

12. Engine stopswith a loudclatter.

ð Inspect for obvious damage. Damagemay be to internal parts such as valve,valve spring, bearings, piston rings, etc.Overhaul of the engine is required.

13. Engine oillevel rises, oillooks andfeels gummy.

ð There may be coolant leaking into theengine oil. Check for internal leakage.Repair the engine before continuingoperation.

14. Engine oilrises or feelsthin.

ð Fuel is leaking into the crankcase. Checkfuel pump. After problem has beencorrected change oil and filters.

15. Hot water inbilges.

ð Inspect the exhaust piping muffler,and/or cooling water level. It is probablyleaking into the bilges. Check all hoses.

16. Engine runswith athumping orknockingnoise.

ð Inspect for obvious damage to internalparts of the engine. They may bedamaged. Disassemble the engine andrepair or overhaul.

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Troubleshooting the Outboard

E.6. General Outboard motors are very common on recreational boats and many CoastGuard boats. The operator manual provides the best guidance. Workingover the transom of the boat poses a hazard to the operator and for lossof parts and tools.

Problem Possible Cause/Correction

1. Engine won’t start. • Fuel tank empty.• Fuel tank vent closed.• Fuel line improperly connected or damaged;

check both ends.• Engine not primed.• Engine flooded, look for fuel overflow.• Clogged fuel filter or line.• Spark plug wires reversed.• Loose battery connections.• Cracked or fouled spark plug.• Fuel pump not primed.

2. Starter motor won’t work (electric starter).

• Gear shift not in neutral.• Defective starter switch (sometimes gets

wet and corrodes if motor is mounted toolow).

3. Loss of power. • Too much oil in fuel mix.• Fuel/air mix too lean (backfires).• Fuel hose kinked.• Slight blockage in fuel line or fuel filter.• Weeds or some other matter on propeller.• Water has condensed in fuel.• Spark plug fouled.• Magneto or distributor points fouled.

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4. Engine misfires. • Spark plug damaged.• Spark plug loose.• Faulty coil or condenser.• Spark plug incorrect.• Spark plug dirty.• Choke needs adjusting.• Improper oil and fuel mixture.• Dirty carburetor filter.• Partially clogged water intake.• Distributor cap cracked.

5. Overheating. • Mud or grease on cooling system intakes.• Too little oil.• Water pump’s worn or impeller (rubber) is

broken or sips.• Defective water pump.

6. Blue smoke. • Spark plugs are fouled, means too muchoil.

7. Engine surges. • Out board not properly mounted-propellerrides out of the water.

• Carburetor needs adjustments.8. Poor performance on

boat.• Wrong propeller.• Engine improperly tilted compared with

transom. Engine should be vertical whenboat is underway.

• Bent propeller-usually accompanied by highlevel of vibration.

• Improper load distribution in boat.• Heavy marine growth on boat bottom.• Cavitation.

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Steering Casualty

E.7. General A steering casualty may have a simple solution or require outsideassistance. It may also test your boat handling skills if the boat has twopropellers. General advice is provided below.

Problem Possible Cause/Correction

1. Broken or jammedcable.

• Rig emergency steering as applicable.Advise operational commander.

2. Broken hydraulicline, or hydraulicsystems malfunction.

• Inspect hoses for leaks, check fluid level,add if necessary.

• Replace hose if spare is on board.• Rig emergency steering as applicable.• Notify controlling unit.• Steer with engines if twin propeller.• Try to center rudder amidships.• Anchor, if necessary.

3. “Frozen”, damaged orblocked rudder,outdrive or outboard

• Attempt to free, if possible.• Center rudder, if possible, and block in

place.

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Basic Engine Maintenance for Auxiliary Facilities

E.8. Maintenancelogs

A very important maintenance procedure is to maintain a hull and enginemaintenance log. Ideally, the log should be in two parts. One partwould include a series of alphabetically arranged entries: battery, filters,oil, zincs, etc. (This makes it easy, for example, to look up “S” forspark plugs or “P” for points.) The other should contain several pagesavailable for chronologically entering haul-outs and major maintenancework. To structure the log properly, the engine manufacturer’smaintenance manual is needed. Also, a good practice is to buy a largering binder and put in it every instruction or technical manual forelectronics, instruments, heads, stoves, etc. that comes with the boat.

E.9. Basicmaintenance actions

There is not enough space in this chapter to write a maintenance manualfore each type of Auxiliary boat. The primary source for a boat’smaintenance requirements should be the engine maintenance manual thatcame with the boat. However, any Auxiliarist can accomplish thefollowing engine maintenance actions:

NOTE $$

a. Change engine oil, oil filters, and fuel filters.

b. Select, gap, and properly torque to specifications, new sparkplugs.

c. Check and change, if necessary, heat exchanger zincs (ifequipped). In some areas this should be done monthly.

d. Drain and replace hydraulic drive fluids.

e. Replace and adjust engine fan belts.

f. Adjust and tighten stuffing box fittings, steering cable orhydraulics, stuffing boxes, and hull fittings.

g. Replace defective engine hoses.

h. Clean the air cleaner and flame arrester.

i. Check and charge batteries.

j. Lube and maintain salt-water intakes/sea co*cks.

E.10. Advancedmaintenance actions

The more experienced power boater can change ignition points, adjusttiming, align engine coupling faces, etc.

Keep the tools aboardneeded to affect theserepairs. With theright spares aboardand the hand tools toinstall them, there isno need to become aSAR case.

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E.11. Inboard boatskept in salt water

A selection of wire brushes, spray cans of primer, engine touch up paint,and a small 5x7 mirror should be kept on board. About twice a month,get in the bilges and really inspect the engines (mounts, etc.,) for rustand corrosion. When found, wire-brush it off and spray with touch uppaint. (There is no reason for engines to be lumps of rust.) Also, whileminutely going over the engine, look for leaking hoses, gaskets, loosewires, etc. Many engine problems relate to electrical problems,including loss of electrical ground and oxidation of leads or connectors.Inspect these areas regularly. The 5x7 mirror is for inspecting the blindside of the engine. Eliminate many occasions to be towed by followingmeticulous maintenance procedures.

E.12. Buying engineparts

NOTE $$

A note about buying engine parts. Spark plugs, hoses, belts, ignitionwires, and points can be purchased at auto supply stores. However,alternators, distributors, and carburetors used on boats must havecertain marine safety features, screens, etc. Any attempt to replacethem with auto components runs the risk of fire and explosion.

Do not use autoparts on your boat.

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Chapter 9: Stability

Overview

Introduction This chapter discusses stability, the ability of a vessel to return to anupright position after being heeled over. Many forces influence thestability of a vessel in the water and each type of vessel reacts differently.Coxswains must be aware of how internal forces (those caused by theboat's design and loading) and external forces (those caused by nature)affect the boat. With practice and experience, coxswains learn toanticipate how a vessel being piloted and a vessel being assisted willreact to various internal and external forces. Recognizing unstable vesselconditions will lead to safe operations for both the boat crew and personson a craft in distress.

In this chapter These items are discussed in this chapter:

Section Title See PageA Safety and Risk Management Control 9-3B Understanding Stability 9-7C Losing Stability 9-17

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Section A. Safety and Risk Management Control

A.1. General Safety of both the boat crew and those in distress is very importantduring any emergency evolution. Mishaps resulting in death or injuryhave occurred while Coast Guard boat crews were assisting vessels indistress. Accident investigation reports have revealed that injury orproperty damage often resulted from common sense and safetyconcerns being forgotten or ignored in the pressing urgency of thesituation. If in the process of trying to assist another mariner youbecome injured or your vessel damaged, you become part of theproblem instead of solving the problem. Chapter 4 of this manualprovides general discussion on risk management.

A.2. Safetyassessment andmanagementguidelines

Emergency situations can cause people to panic or act before thinkingdespite the best of training and preparation. Therefore, boat crews mustwork together as a team to minimize any potential or immediatejeopardy for both civilian casualties and themselves. Never enter anemergency situation without first assessing the risk involved for theboat crew members and civilian victims (Risk Assessment), always beaware of the dynamics of the emergency situation (SituationalAwareness), and implement a control plan that fits each uniqueemergency (Stability Risk Management Plan).

A.2.a. Riskassessment andmanagement

Risk assessment starts with understanding why mishaps occur.Responsibility for identifying and managing risk lies with everymember of the boat crew. Realistic training based on standardtechniques, critical analysis, and debriefing missions will help everyperson in a boat crew to contribute to developing and implementing aRisk Management Plan. A Risk Management Plan identifies andcontrols risk according to a set of preconceived parameters.

• Make the best attempt to account for all persons.

• Attempt to have all lines, rigging, etc. removed from the wateraround the vessel to avoid fouling the screws.

• Have all required equipment ready and test run pumps.

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Refer to Chapter 4 of this manual for a more complete discussion ofareas where failure typically contributes significantly to seriousmishaps.

A.2.b. Situationalawareness

NOTE $$

Situational Awareness is the accurate perception of the factors andconditions affecting the boat crew at a given time during any evolution.More simply stated, situational awareness is knowing what is going onaround you at all times while continuing to perform the task assigned toyou.

Any time you identify an indication that situational awareness is aboutto be lost, you must make a decision whether or not to continue withthe rescue attempt. Everyone in the crew owns some responsibility formaking these important decisions. The decision takes the form ofaction/reaction and communication. The person in charge of the boatmakes the final decision but the boat crew has the responsibility torecognize dangerous situations and bring them to the attention of thecoxswain.

A.2.c. Stability riskmanagement plan

The entire crew must constantly watch for any loss of stability in theirown vessel and that of the distressed craft. Do not assume that thecoxswain has been able to observe all of the warning signs. Advise thecoxswain of stability concerns that may have been overlooked and anywarning signs. Use these warning signs as a guideline for a StabilityRisk Management Plan.

• Observe the roll of your own boat and, for a distressed vessel,observe its roll upon approaching and when under tow.

• Be aware of external forces - wind, waves and water depth.

• Be aware of control loading, amount of weight and placement,on own and the distressed craft.

• If necessary, attempt to keep your equipment aboard your vesselwhen dewatering the vessel.

• Attempt to tow the vessel only after any loss of stability hasbeen corrected.

• Adjust course, speed, or both as necessary to decrease rolling orlisting.

• Avoid sharp turns or turns at high speed when loss of stability ispossible.

Crews who have ahigh level ofSITUATIONALAWARENESSperform in a safemanner.

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WARNING II

• Maintain communication between the coxswain and crew.

• Keep the operational commander or parent unit informed of thesituation through regular and frequent reports.

When a vessel is visibly unstable (i.e., listing, trimmed to the bow/stern or whendownflooding occurs) never make your vessel fast to or tow the distressed vessel.A flooded vessel may appear stable when it in fact is not. Compare the boatsreaction to sea conditions with your own boat’s movements.

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Section B. Understanding Stability

Overview

Introduction When a vessel is heeled over in reaction to some external influence, otherthan damage to the vessel, it tends to either return to an upright positionor to continue to heel over and capsize. The tendency of a vessel toremain upright is its stability. The greater the tendency to remainupright, and the stronger the force required to heel the vessel over in anydirection, the more stability the vessel achieves. The stability of a vesselin the water is very important to all members of a boat crew. Being ableto anticipate how your vessel and the vessel you are assisting will react inany given set of circ*mstances is dependent on your knowledge ofstability. Weight and buoyancy are the two primary forces acting upon afloating vessel that affect stability. The weight pushes the vessel downinto the water. Buoyancy is the force that is pushing up from the water tokeep the vessel afloat. The interaction of these two forces determines thevessel’s stability.

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageCenter of Gravity 9-8Buoyancy 9-9Equilibrium 9-10Types of Stability 9-12Moment and Forces 9-13

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Center of Gravity

B.1. Center ofgravity

The center of gravity is the point at which the weight of the boat actsvertically downwards. Thus, the boat acts as though all of its weight wereconcentrated at the center of gravity. Generally, the lower the center ofgravity, the more stable the vessel.

B.1.a. Changes inthe center of gravity

The center of gravity of a boat is fixed for stability and does not shiftunless weight is added, subtracted, or shifted. When weight is added, forexample when a vessel takes on water, the center of gravity movestoward the added weight. When the weight is removed, the center ofgravity moves in the opposite direction.

If a vessel has been damaged so that water is flowing in and out of a holebelow the waterline, known as free communication with the sea, theresult is a loss of buoyancy which generally means a significant reductionin stability.

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Buoyancy

B.2. Buoyancy The buoyancy is the upward force of water displaced by the hull. Theforce of buoyancy keeps the boat afloat; however, it may be overcomeand the boat will sink if too much weight is added.

B.2.a. Center ofbuoyancy

The center of buoyancy is the center of gravity of displaced water.Similar to the center of gravity, this is the point on which allupward/vertical force is considered to act. It lies in the center of theunderwater form of the hull (See Figure 9-1).

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Equilibrium

B.3. Equilibrium When a boat is at rest, the center of buoyancy acting upwards/vertically isbelow the center of gravity acting downwards. A boat is considered to bein equilibrium. Equilibrium is affected by movement of the center ofgravity or center of buoyancy or by some outside forces, such as windand waves (See Figure 9-1).

Stability In EquilibriumFigure 9-1

B.3.a. Rolling When a boat rolls, the force of the center of gravity will move in thesame direction as the roll. The downward force of gravity is offset by theupward force of buoyancy and causes the boat to heel.

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B.3.b. Heeling In heeling, the underwater volume of the boat changes shape causing thecenter of buoyancy to move.

The center of buoyancy will move towards the part of the hull that ismore deeply immersed. When this happens the center of buoyancy willno longer be aligned vertically with the center of gravity. The intersectionof the vertical line thru the center of bouyancy and the vertical centerlineis called the metacenter. When the metacentric height (the distancebetween center of gravity and metacenter) is positive, that is themetacenter is above center and gravity, the center of buoyancy shifts sothat it is outboard of the center of gravity the boat is considered to bestable, and the forces of buoyancy and gravity will act to bring the boatback to an upright position. If the center of buoyancy is inboard of thecenter of gravity, that is the metacentric height is negative, the forces ofbuoyancy and gravity will tend to roll the boat further towards capsize(See Figure 9-2).

HeelingFigure 9-2

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B.3.c. Listing

NOTE $$

If the center of gravity is not on the centerline of the boat, the boat willheel until equilibrium is reached with the center of buoyancy and centerof gravity in alignment. This condition is referred to as list.

Heeling is a temporary leaning, listing is a permanent leaning, andboth are different from rolling which is a side-to-side motion.

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Types of Stability

B.4. Types ofstability

A boat has two principle types of stability:

• Longitudinal

• Transverse

A boat is usually much longer than it is wide. Therefore, the longitudinalplane (fore and aft) is more stable than its transverse plane (beam).

B.4.a. Longitudinal(fore and aft)stability

Longitudinal (fore and aft) stability tends to balance the boat, preventingit from pitching end-over-end (pitch poling). Vessels are designed withenough longitudinal stability to avoid damage under normalcirc*mstances. However, differences in vessel design varies thelongitudinal stability characteristics of different vessels depending on thepurpose for which a vessel is designed. Some vessels can suffer excessivepitching and offer a very wet and uncomfortable ride during rough seaand weather conditions. Such an uncomfortable ride often affects theendurance and capability of people on vessels you are assisting.

B.4.b. Transverse(athwartships)stability

Transverse (athwartships) stability tends to keep the boat from rollingover (capsizing). Additional weight above the center of gravity increasesthe distance from the center of gravity up to the center of buoyancy. As aresult, stability is also decreased. Removal of weight from below thecenter of gravity also decreases stability. If the center of gravity is raisedenough the boat will become unstable.

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Moment and Forces

B.5. Moment andforces

The force that causes a vessel to return to an even keel, or uprightposition is called the vessel's moment. Both static and dynamic forcescan reduce stability and moment. Moments, and the internal and externalforces that act to increase or decrease the righting moment, are importantfactors in determining the stability of a vessel at any given point in time.

B.5.a. Rightingmoment andcapsizing

A righting moment is the force causing a vessel to react against a rolland return to an even keel. Generally, the broader a boat's beam, the morestable that boat will be and the less likely it is to capsize. For any givencondition of loading, the center of gravity is at a fixed position. As a boatheels, the center of buoyancy moves to the lower side of the boat formingan angle of inclination. Larger changes in the movement of the center ofbuoyancy will result with any given angle of heel. This change providesgreater righting movement, up to a maximum angle of inclination.

Too much weight added to the side of the vessel that is heeled over canovercome the forces supporting stability and cause the vessel to capsize.(See Figure 9-3.)

A boat may also capsize when aground as the volume of water beneaththe vessel decreases and the vessel loses balance. As the amount of watersupporting the vessel is reduced, there is a loss of buoyancy force beingprovided by that water. In addition, the upward force acting at the pointof grounding will increase and cause the unsupported hull to fall to oneside.

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Righting Moment and CapsizingFigure 9-3

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B.5.b. Static anddynamic forces

Unless acted upon by some external force, a boat that is properlydesigned and loaded remains on an even keel. The two principle forcesthat affect stability are static and dynamic forces.

1) Static forces are caused by placement of weight within the hull.Adding weight on one side of a boat's centerline or above itscenter of gravity usually reduces stability. Flooding or groundinga boat makes it susceptible to static forces which may adverselyaffect stability.

2) Dynamic forces are caused by actions outside the hull such aswind and waves. Strong gusts of wind or heavy seas, especially inshallow water, may build up a dangerous sea tending to capsize aboat.

For a boat crew member this understanding is useful when approaching avessel to provide assistance. Observing the vessel’s roll can provide someinitial indications about the stability of the vessel.

• Watch the time required for a complete roll from side to side. Thetime should remain about the same regardless of the severity ofthe angle or roll.

• If the time increases significantly or the boat hesitates at the endof the roll, the boat is approaching or past the position ofmaximum righting effect. Take immediate steps to decrease theroll by changing course or speed or both.

B.6. Vessel design General vessel design features that influence stability include:

• Size and shape of the hull

• Draft of the boat (the distance from the surface of the water to thekeel)

• Trim (the angle from horizontal at which a vessel rides)

• Displacement

• Freeboard

• Superstructure size, shape, and weight

• Non-watertight openings

Many of these features are discussed in Chapter 8, Boat Characteristics.

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Section C. Losing Stability

Overview

Introduction A vessel may be inclined away from its upright position by certaininternal and external influences such as:

• Waves

• Wind

• Turning forces when the rudder is put over

• Shifting of weights on board

• Addition or removal of weights

• Loss of buoyancy (damage)

These influences exert heeling moments on a vessel causing it to list(permanent) or heel (temporary). A stable boat does not capsize whensubjected to normal heeling moments due to the boat’s tendency to rightit*elf (righting moment).

In this section These items are discussed in this section:

Topic See PageStability After Damage 9-18Free Surface Effect 9-19Free Communication with the Sea 9-21Effects of Icing 9-22Effects of Downflooding 9-23Effects of Water on Deck 9-24

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Stability After Damage

C.1. General When assisting a damaged vessel consider that any change in stabilitymay result in the loss of the vessel. The added weight of assistingpersonnel or equipment may cause the vessel to lose its righting moment,lose stability, and capsize. This consequence, and the danger involved,must be considered when determining risk to avoid harm to the crew andfurther damage or loss of a vessel.

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Free Surface Effect

C.2. General

NOTE $$

Compartments in a vessel may contain liquids as a matter of design or asa result of damage. If a compartment is only partly filled, the liquid canflow from side to side as the vessel rolls or pitches. The surface of theliquid tends to remain parallel to the waterline. Liquid that only partlyfills a compartment is said to have free surface and water in such acompartment is called loose water. When loose water shifts from side toside or forward and aft due to turning, speed changes, or wave action, thevessel does not want to right itself. This causes a loss of stability. Thiscan cause the vessel to capsize or sink. A cargo of fish free to move aboutinside a compartment will have the same effect, a condition commonlyfound on fishing vessels (See Figures 9-4 and 9-5).

Effects of Free SurfaceFigure 9-4

Note that the areaof free surface isvery important,and in particularits width. If thefree surface areadoubles in width,its adverse effecton stability willchange by a factorof four.

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Effects of Load WeightFigure 9-5

C.3. Correctiveactions

Corrective actions include

• Minimize the number of partially filled tanks (fuel, water, orcargo); ballast with sea water as necessary.

• Maintain fish wells completely empty or filled at all times.

• Prevent cargo such as fish from rolling back and forth on thedeck.

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Free Communication with the Sea

C.4. General Damage to the hull of a vessel can create free communication with thesea, the movement of sea water into and out of the vessel.

C.5. Correctiveactions

Corrective actions include:

• Patch the hull opening.

• Place weight on the high side to decrease the list toward thedamaged side.

• Remove weight above the center of gravity on the damaged side.

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Effects of Icing

C.6. General Icing can increase the displacement of a boat by adding weight above thecenter of gravity and causing it to rise. This can cause a vessel to heelover and greatly reduce stability. Sea swells, sharp turns, or quickchanges in speed can capsize a vessel that has accumulated ice on itstopside surfaces. (See Figure 9-6.)

Effects of IcingFigure 9-6

C.7. Correctiveactions

Corrective actions include:

• Change course, speed or both to reduce freezing spray and rolling.

• Physically remove the ice.

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Effects of Downflooding

C.8. General Downflooding is the entry of water into the hull resulting in progressiveflooding and loss of stability. Vessels are designed with sufficientstability and proper righting moments as long as they are not overloaded.These design features cannot compensate for the carelessness of a boatcrew who fails to maintain the watertight integrity of a vessel and allow itto needlessly take on water. (See Figure 9-7.)

Effects of DownfloodingFigure 9-7

C.9. Correctiveactions

Corrective actions include:

• Keep all watertight fittings and openings secured when a vessel isunderway.

• Pump out the water.

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Effects of Water on Deck

C.10. General Water on deck can cause stability problems by:

• Increasing displacement (increasing draft and decreasing stabilityand trim).

• Contributing to free surface effect.

• Amplifying the rolling motion of the vessel which may result incapsizing.

C.11. Correctiveactions

Corrective actions include:

• Decrease trim, increase freeboard.

• Change course, speed or both.

• Ensure drain openings are unobstructed (See Figure 9-8).

Effects of Water on DeckFigure 9-8

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Chapter 10: Boat Handling

Overview

Introduction This chapter covers handling vessels under power. Vessels under sail andpersonal watercraft are not addressed. Topics include:

• Forces that move or control a vessel

• Basic maneuvering and boat operating

• Maneuvering techniques for general categories of vessels, and

• Purpose-based boat handling evolutions and procedures.

Boat handling requires an understanding of many variables and complexproblems. Though you can only develop boat handling skills throughhands-on experience, the information in this chapter provides a basicdescription of principles and practices.

The bestcoxswains

Though good coxswains are familiar with the characteristics of their boatand how it operates, the best coxswains are knowledgeable in theoperation of all types of small craft, including sailboats and personalwatercraft. They know how varying weather and sea conditions affect theoperation of not just their vessel, but are also keenly aware of thelimitations that the weather and sea impose on other vessels. They have athorough knowledge of navigation, piloting and characteristics of theiroperating area. Above all, the best coxswains understand how to meshthe capabilities of their vessel to weather and sea conditions to conductthe safest possible boat operations.

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In this chapter This chapter contains the following information:

Section Title See PageA Forces 10-3B Basic Maneuvering 10-23C Maneuvering Near Other Objects 10-51D Maneuvering to or from a Dock 10-57E Maneuvering Alongside Another Vessel 10-67F Maneuvering in Rough Weather 10-73G Maneuvering in Rivers 10-93H Anchoring 10-101

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Section A. Forces

Overview

Introduction Different forces act on a vessel’s hull, causing it to move in a particulardirection or to change direction. These forces include environmentalforces, propulsion, and steering.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageEnvironmental Forces 10-4Forces Acting on a Vessel 10-9Shaft, Propeller, and Rudder 10-12Outboard Motors and Stern Drives 10-17Waterjets 10-21

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Environmental Forces

A.1. General Environmental forces that affect the horizontal motion of a vessel arewind, seas and current. Remember that the coxswain has no control overthem. Take the time to observe how the wind, seas and current, aloneand together, affect your vessel. Determine how these forces cause yourvessel to drift, and at what speed and angle. Coxswains must useenvironmental forces to their advantage and use propulsion and steeringto overcome the environmental forces. Usually, a good mix of using andovercoming environmental forces results in smooth, safe boat handling.

A.2. Winds The wind acts on the hull topsides, superstructure, and on smaller boats,crew. The amount of surface upon which the wind acts is called sail area.The vessel will make “leeway” (drift downwind) at a speed proportionalto the wind velocity and the amount of sail area. The “aspect” or anglethe vessel takes due to the wind will depend on where the sail area iscentered compared to the underwater hull’s center of lateral resistance. Avessel with a high cabin near the bow and low freeboard aft (Figure 10-1)would tend to ride stern to the wind. If a vessel’s draft is shallowerforward than aft, the wind would affect the bow more than the stern. Asudden gust of wind from abeam when mooring a vessel like this mightquickly set the bow down on a pier.

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High Cabin Near Bow, Low Freeboard AftFigure 10-1

A.2.a. Closequarters situations

Knowledge of how the wind affects a vessel is very important in all closequarters situations, such as docking, recovery of an object in the water, ormaneuvering close aboard another vessel. If maneuvering from adownwind or leeward side of a vessel or pier, look for any wind shadowthe vessel or pier makes by blocking the wind (Figure 10-2). Account forthe change in wind by planning maneuvers with this wind shadow in mind.

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Wind ShadowFigure 10-2

A.3. Seas Seas are a product of the wind acting on the surface of the water. Seasaffect boat handling in various ways, depending on their height anddirection and the particular vessel’s characteristics. Vessels that readilyreact to wave motion, particularly pitching, will often expose part of theunderwater hull to the wind. In situations such as this, the bow or sternmay tend to “fall off” the wind when cresting a wave, as less underwaterhull is available to prevent this downwind movement.

Relatively large seas have the effect of making a temporary wind shadowfor smaller vessels. In the trough between two crests, the wind may besubstantially less than the wind at the wave crest. Very small vessels mayneed to make corrective maneuvers in the trough before approaching thenext crest.

A.4. Current Current will act on a vessel’s underwater hull. Though wind will cause avessel to make leeway through the water current will cause drift over theground. A one-knot current may affect a vessel to the same degree as 30knots of wind. Strong current will easily move a vessel upwind.

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Learn to look for the signs of current flow so that you are prepared whencurrent affects the vessel. Be particularly aware of instances wherecurrent shear is present. As with wind, a large, stationary object like abreakwater or jetty will cause major changes in the amount and directionof current (Figure 10-3). Note the amount of current around floatingpiers or those with open pile supports. Use caution when maneuvering inclose quarters to buoys and anchored vessels. Observe the effect ofcurrent by looking for current wake or flow patterns around buoys orpiers. Watch how currents affect other vessels.

Effects of CurrentFigure 10-3

A.5. Combinedenvironmentalforces

Environmental conditions can range from perfectly calm and absolutely nocurrent to a howling gale at spring tides. Chances are that even if youdon’t operate at either extreme, some degree of environmental forces willbe in action.

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A.5.a. Know thevessel’s response

NOTE $$

Know how your vessel responds to combinations of wind and current anddetermine which one has the greatest effect on your vessel. It may be thatup to a certain wind speed, current has more control over a given vessel,but above that certain wind speed, the boat sails like a kite. Know whatwill happen if you encounter a sudden gust of wind; will your boatimmediately veer, or will it take a sustained wind to start it turning?

When current goes against the wind, the wave patterns will be steeper andcloser together. Be particularly cautious where current or wind isfunneled against the other. Tide rips, breaking bars, or gorge conditionsfrequently occur in these types of areas and may present a challenge toeven the most proficient coxswain.

On the other hand, making leeway while drifting downstream (downcurrent) requires a change in approach to prevent overshooting yourlanding.

Stay constantlyaware of conditions,how they may bechanging, and howthey affect yourvessel.

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Forces Acting on a Vessel

A.6. General Before learning how to overcome these forces, you must learn how theyact on a vessel.

A.7. Assumptions For this discussion of propulsion, we make the following assumptions:

• If a vessel has a single-shaft motor or drive unit, it is mounted onthe vessel’s centerline.

• When applying thrust to go forward, the propeller turns clockwise(the top to the right or a “right-handed” propeller), viewed fromastern, and turns counterclockwise viewed from astern whenmaking thrust to go astern.

• If twin propulsion is used, the propeller to starboard operates asabove (right-hand turning), while the port unit turnscounterclockwise when making thrust to go forward when viewedfrom astern (left-hand turning). See Figure 10-4.

• Be aware that some propeller drive units rotate in only onedirection, and changing the propeller blade angle of attack controlsahead or astern thrust (controllable pitch propeller).

PropellersFigure 10-4

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A.8. Propulsionand steering

The key to powered vessel movement is the effective transfer of energyfrom the source of the power (an internal combustion engine) to the waterthrough a mechanism that turns the engine’s power into thrust. Thisthrust moves the boat. There must also be an element of directionalcontrol, both fore and aft, and from side to side.

Pivot PointFigure 10-5

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NOTE $$Propulsion and steering are considered together here for two reasons.Applying thrust has no use if you can’t control the vessel’s direction, andoften the device providing the propulsion also provides the steering.There are three common methods to transfer power and provide directional control:

• Rotating shaft and propeller with separate rudder,

• A movable (steerable) combination as an outboard motor or sterndrive, or

• By an engine-driven pump mechanism with directional control,called a waterjet.

All three arrangements have their advantages and disadvantages from thestandpoint of mechanical efficiency, ease of maintenance, and vesselcontrol. Using one type of propulsion instead of another is often a matterof vessel design and use parameters, operating area limitations, life cyclecost and frequently, personal preference. There is no single “best choice”for all applications. Regardless of which type you use, become familiarwith how each operates and how the differences in operation affect vesselmovement.

On almost everyboat, propulsion andsteeringarrangement isdesigned to operatemore efficiently andeffectively whengoing ahead thanwhen going astern.Also, every vesselrotates in atransverse directionabout a vertical axison its pivot point(Figure 10-5). Thefore and aft locationof the pivot pointvaries from boat toboat, but isgenerally justforward ofamidships when theboat is at rest. As ahull moves eitherahead or astern, theeffective position ofthe pivot pointmoves eitherforward or aft,respectively.

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Shaft, Propeller, and Rudder

A.9. Shaft In small craft installations, the propeller shaft usually penetrates thebottom of the hull at an angle to the vessel’s designed waterline and truehorizontal. The practical reason for this is because the engine or marinegear must be inside the hull while the diameter of the propeller must beoutside and beneath the hull. Additionally, there must be a space betweenthe propeller blade arc of rotation and the bottom of the hull. For single-screw vessels, the shaft is generally aligned to the centerline of the vessel.However, in some installations, a slight offset (approximately one degree)is used to compensate for shaft torque. To finish the installation, therudder is usually mounted directly astern of the propeller.

For twin-screw vessels, we will only consider the case where both shaftsare parallel to the vessel’s centerline (or nearly so), rudders are mountedastern of the propellers, and the rudders turn on vertical rudder posts.

A.10. Propelleraction

When rotating to move in a forward direction, a propeller draws itssupply of water from every direction forward of and around the blades.Each blade’s shape and pitch develop a low pressure area on the forwardface of the blade and a high pressure area on the after face of the blades,forcing it in a stream toward the stern. This thrust, or dynamic pressure,along the propeller’s rotation axis is transmitted through the shaft, movingthe boat ahead as the propeller tries to move into the area of lowerpressure.

A.10.a. Screwcurrent

Regardless of whether the propeller is turning to go ahead or astern, thewater flow pattern into the propeller’s arc of rotation is called suctionscrew current, and the thrust flow pattern out of the propeller is calleddischarge screw current (Figure 10-6). The discharge screw currentwill always be stronger and more concentrated than the suction screwcurrent.

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Screw CurrentFigure 10-6

A.10.b. Side force In addition to the thrust along the shaft axis, another effect of propellerrotation is side force. Explanations for side force include:

• How the propeller reacts to interference from the vessel hull as thehull drags a layer of water along with it (the propeller encountersboundary layer “frictional wake”),

• How the discharge screw current acts on the rudder,

• The propeller blade at the top of the arc transfers some energy tothe water surface (prop wash) or to the hull (noise) and that theblade at the top of the arc either entrains air or encounters aeratedwater, and

Due to the angle of the propeller shaft, the effective pitch angle isdifferent for ascending and descending propeller blades, resulting in anunequal blade thrust. (The descending blade has a higher effective pitchangle and causes more thrust.) This net effect is sometimes referred to assideways blade pressure.

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NOTE $$

Side ForceFigure 10-7

The important facts to know: for a right-handed screw turning ahead, the sternwill tend to move to starboard (Figure 10-7), and for a right-handed screw whenbacking, the stern will tend to move to port. For a left-handed screw (normallythe port shaft on a twin-screw boat), the action is the opposite.

An easy way to remember how side force will push the stern is to think of thepropeller as a wheel on the ground. As the wheel rolls clockwise, it moves to theright. As a propeller turns clockwise when viewed from astern, the stern movesto starboard.

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A.10.c. Cavitation

NOTE $$

Cavitation usually occurs when the propeller rotates at very high speedand a partial vacuum forms air bubbles at the tips of the propeller blades.Cavitation can also occur when trying to get a stopped propeller to spin atmaximum speed, rapidly going from ahead to astern (or vice-versa), or byoperating in aerated water where bubbles are dragged into the propellerflow.

Cavitation occurs more readily when trying to back, as the suction screwcurrent draws water from behind the transom, and air at the waterlinemixes with the water and is drawn into the propeller. Cavitationfrequently occurs when backing with outboard motors. In this case,through-hub exhaust gas bubbles are also drawn forward into thepropeller blade arc.

A.11. Rudderaction

If a vessel is moving through the water (even without propulsion), younormally use the rudder to change the vessel’s heading. As a hull movesforward and the rudder is held steady, amidships, pressure on either sideof the rudder is relatively equal and the vessel will usually keep a straighttrack. When you turn the rudder to port or starboard, pressure decreaseson one side of the rudder and increases on the other. This force causesthe vessel’s stern to move to one side or the other. As noted above,because a vessel rotates about its pivot point, as the stern moves in onedirection, the bow moves in the other (Figures 10-8 (a) and (b)).

The speed of the water flowing past the rudder greatly enhances therudder’s force. The thrust or screw discharge current from a propellerwhile operating ahead increases the water flow speed past the rudder.Also, if you turn the rudder to a side, it directs about one-half of thepropeller thrust to that side, adding a major component of force to movethe stern (Figures 10-8 (c) and (d)).

A small degree of cavitation is normal. For our purposes, we will use the term tocover the situation where effective thrust is lost and the propeller just spins andmakes bubbles. Cavitation can diminish propeller efficiency to this point. Oncecavitation occurs, the easiest way to regain thrust is to reduce propellerrevolutions per minute (RPMs) and as the bubbles subside, gradually increaseRPMs. Propeller cavitation can occur on vessels of all sizes.

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When operating astern, the rudder is in the screw suction current. Therudder cannot direct any propeller thrust, and since the screw suctioncurrent is neither as strong nor as concentrated as the screw dischargecurrent, water flow past the rudder does not increase as much. Thecombined effects of screw current and rudder force when operating asternare not nearly as effective as when operating ahead.

As rudder force is determined by water flow along it, a rudder loses someof its effectiveness if the propeller cavitates and aerated water flows alongthe rudder.

Effect of Rudder ActionFigure 10-8

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Outboard Motors and Stern Drives

A.12. General Outboard motors and stern drives will be considered together as bothinclude a pivoting gear case and propeller drive unit (called a lower uniton an outboard). The difference between these drive arrangements andthe shaft/propeller/rudder arrangement is that the screw currents andthrust from an outboard or stern drive can be developed at an angle to thevessel centerline. Also, the point where thrust and steering are developedis usually aft of the vessel hull.

The lower unit contains drive gears, a spline connection, and on many set-ups, through-the-propeller hub exhaust. Many lower unit gear housingsare over six inches in diameter. Where the stern drive is powered by aninboard engine attached through the transom to the drive unit (theoutdrive) and is commonly referred to as an inboard/outdrive or I/O. Theoutboard “powerhead” (engine) is mounted directly above the lower unit.Both outboards and stern drives can usually direct thrust at up to 35 to 40degrees off the vessel centerline. Also, both types generally allow thecoxswain some amount of trim control. Trim control adjusts the propelleraxis angle with the horizontal or surface of the water.

The major difference in operation between the I/O and outboard is thatthe outboard motor, operating with a vertical crankshaft and driveshaft,develops a certain degree of rotational torque that could cause somedegree of “pull” in the steering, usually when accelerating or in a sharpturn to starboard. If caught unaware, the coxswain could have difficultystopping the turning action. The easiest way to overcome this torque-lock is to immediately reduce RPMs before trying to counter-steer.

A.13. Thrust anddirectional control

Outboards and stern drives have a small steering vane or skeg below thepropeller. The housing above the gearcase (below the waterline) isgenerally foil shaped. Though these features help directional control,particularly at speed, the larger amount of steering force from anoutboard or stern drive is based upon the ability to direct the screwdischarge current thrust at an angle to the vessel’s centerline (Figure 10-9). This directed thrust provides extremely effective directional controlwhen powering ahead. When making way with no propeller RPMs, thelower unit and skeg are not as effective as a rudder in providingdirectional control.

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NOTE $$

Lower Unit/Outdrive Directed ThrustFigure 10-9

A.14. Propellerside force

When backing, you can direct outboard/outdrive thrust to move the sternto port or starboard. When backing with the unit hard over to port,propeller side force introduces an element of forward motion (Figure 10-10), but can be countered through less helm. When backing to starboard,the side force tends to cause an element of astern motion and also tries tooffset the initial starboard movement. Many lower units are fitted with asmall vertical vane, slightly offset from centerline, directly above andastern of the propeller. This vane also acts to counter side force,particularly at higher speeds.

Lower Unit/Outdrive Side ForceFigure 10-10

The propeller forcesdiscussed above insection A.8. (screwcurrent and sideforce) also apply tothe propellers onoutboards oroutdrives. However,because you candirect these drives,you can counter sideforce. The steeringvane/skeg angle isusually adjustable,also assisting incountering sideforce.

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A.15. Verticalthrust

Outboards and stern drive usually allow a level of vertical thrust control.Trim controls the angle of attack between the propeller’s axis of rotationand both the vessel waterline and the surface of the water. Vertical thrustcontrol, especially applied aft of the transom, changes the attitude thevessel hull will take to the water (Figure 10-11). Use small amounts oftrim to offset for extreme loading conditions or to adjust how the vesselgoes through chop.

Trim to Offset Loading ConditionFigure 10-11

In addition to trim, a vertical component of thrust develops in anothersituation. Depending on the type of hull, if a vessel is forced into anextremely tight turn with power applied, thrust is directed sideways whilethe vessel heels, actually trying to force the transom up out of the water,causing a turn to tighten even more.

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WARNING II

A.16. Cavitation As noted earlier, cavitation frequently occurs when backing with outboardmotors. As through-hub exhaust gas bubbles are drawn forward into thepropeller blade arc, the aerated water increases the possibility ofcavitation. Though outboards and stern-drives are fitted with an anti-cavitation plate above the propeller, always take care to limit cavitation,particularly when backing or maneuvering using large amounts of throttle.

In lightweight or highly buoyant outboard powered boats, use of full power intight turns can cause loss of control or ejection of crew or coxswain. If installed,the helmsman should always attach engine kill switch lanyard to themselves.

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Waterjets

A.17. General A waterjet is an engine-driven impeller mounted in a housing. Theimpeller draws water in and forces it out through a nozzle. The suction(inlet) side of the waterjet is forward of the nozzle, usually mounted at thedeepest draft near the after sections of the hull. The discharge nozzle ismounted low in the hull, exiting through the transom. The cross-sectionalarea of the inlet is much larger than that of the nozzle. The volume ofwater entering the inlet is the same as being discharged through thenozzle, so the water flow is much stronger at the nozzle than at theintake. This pump-drive system is strictly a directed-thrust drivearrangement. A waterjet normally has no appendages, nor does it extendbelow the bottom of the vessel hull, allowing for operation in veryshallow water.

A.18. Thrust anddirectional control

Vessel control is through the nozzle-directed thrust. To attain forwardmotion, the thrust exits directly astern. For turning, the nozzle pivots (asa stern drive) to provide a transverse thrust component that moves thestern. For astern motion, a bucket-like deflector drops down behind thenozzle and directs the thrust forward. Some waterjet applications includetrim control as with a stern drive or outboard. With this, thrust can bedirected slightly upward or downward to offset vessel loading or improveride.

From time to time, you might see a waterjet with a small steering vane,but in most cases the only vessel control is by the nozzle-directed thrust.If a waterjet craft is proceeding at high speed, power brought downquickly to neutral, and the helm put over, no turning action will occur. Ofthe three drive arrangements discussed, the waterjet alone has nodirectional control when there is no power.

A.19. No sideforce

Since the waterjet impeller is fully enclosed in the pump-drive housing, nopropeller side force is generated. The only way to move the stern to portor starboard is by using the directed thrust.

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A.20. Cavitation Waterjet impeller blades revolve at an extremely high speed. A muchhigher degree of cavitation normally occurs than associated with externalpropellers without a loss of effective thrust. In fact, a telltale indicator ofwaterjet propulsion is a pronounced aerated-water discharge frequentlyseen as a rooster tail astern of such craft.

As the impeller rotation does not change with thrust direction, frequentshifting from ahead to astern motion does not induce cavitation.However, as the thrust to make astern motion reaches the waterjet inlet,the aerated water is drawn into the jet, causing some reduction ofeffective thrust. As with all types of propulsion, slowing the impeller untilclear of the aerated water reduces cavitation effects.

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Section B. Basic Maneuvering

Overview

Introduction To learn basic handling and maneuvering characteristics of a vessel, atrainee must first observe a skilled coxswain. Also, one must first learn tooperate the vessel in relatively open water, away from fixed piers andmoored vessels or the critical gaze of onlookers.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageLearning the Controls 10-24Moving Forward in a Straight Line 10-26Turning the Boat with the Helm 10-33Stopping the Boat 10-38Backing the Vessel 10-40Using Asymmetric or Opposed Propulsion 10-43Changing Vessel Heading Using Asymmetric or OpposedPropulsion

10-44

Performing Single-Screw Compound Maneuvering 10-48

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Learning the Controls

B.1. General When you step up to the controls of any vessel for the first time,immediately become familiar with any physical constraints or limitationsof the helm and engine controls. Ideally, controls should be designed andmounted to allow a wide range of operators of different arm length andhand size, though this is not always so.

B.2. Obstructions/hazards

NOTE $$

Determine if anything obstructs hand or arm movement for helm andthrottle control. Check for a firm grasp of the wheel through 360degrees, anything that prevents use of the spokes, awkward position ofthrottle/gear selector, layout that prevents use of heavy gloves,inaccessible engine shut-down handles, an easily fouled outboard kill-switch lanyard or other common-sense items. Learn what they are beforeyou snag a sleeve while maneuvering in close quarters or bang a knee orelbow in choppy seas.

B.3. Determinethe helm limits

The following are some guidelines for determining the helm limits.

Step Procedure1 Determine the amount of helm from full right rudder to full left

rudder.2 Check for any binding, play, or slop in the helm and rudder

control and at what angle it occurs.3 Ensure that the helm indicates rudder amidships.4 Ensure that a rudder angle indicator accurately matches rudder

position and matches a centered helm.

Check controloperation whilemoored withengines secured.Some largervessels requireengine operationto operate controlssuch as engineassisted hydraulicsteering. If so,check throttlecontrols withengines secured.

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B.4. Check enginecontrol action

The following are some items to check when checking engine controlaction.

Step Procedure1 Is throttle separate from shifting/direction mechanism?2 Any detent, notch or stops that separate neutral, ahead and astern.3 Force required to shift from neutral to ahead or astern.4 Binding or excessive looseness at any stage of the throttle control.5 Is “neutral” easily found without looking at the control handle?6 Do the controls stay put or do they tend to slide back?7 Does the kill-switch lanyard allow adequate but not excessive

range of motion?8 Does an engine shut down handle work properly?9 Is idle speed adjusted properly?

WARNING II

B.5. Recheckingcontrols

CAUTION !

After checking all controls while moored with engines secured, rechecktheir operation with engines running while securely moored. It may notbe safe to apply full ahead to astern throttle, but note any time lagbetween throttle shift and propulsion, from neutral to ahead, neutral toastern, ahead to astern, and astern to ahead.

NOTE $$When training, an experienced individual should get the vessel underwayand into open water before turning control over to anyone not familiarwith the particular boat’s operation. Once in open water, turn controlover to the new coxswain and have them recheck helm and engine controloperation at clutch speed.

Smooth, positive operation of helm and engine controls is absolutely necessary forsafe boat operation. Don’t accept improper control configuration, mismatchedequipment, or improper maintenance as a reason for poorly operating controls.Poor control operation causes unsafe boat operations.

When going from ahead position to astern position, and when going from asternposition to ahead position, pause briefly at the neutral position.

Perform thesesteps as part ofevery getting-underway check.

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Moving Forward in a Straight Line

B.6. General When moving forward in a straight line, advance throttle gradually andfirmly. If the vessel is single-screw, outboard, or outdrive, propeller sideforce will tend to move the stern slightly to starboard (Figure 10-12).Offset the side force with slight starboard helm. If twin-engine, advancethrottles together. The vessel should not yaw in either direction if poweris applied evenly. Check engine RPMs so both engines turn at the samespeed. Some vessels have a separate indicator to show if engine RPMsmatch, but also compare tachometer readings.

NOTE $$

Accelerated AheadFigure 10-12

Don’t ramthrottles forwardwhen starting up.As the engines tryto transfer theexcessive power,the stern willsquat, raising thebow anddecreasingvisibility (Figure10-13), andpropellers orimpellers maycavitate.

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Pronounced Squat on AccelerationFigure 10-13

B.7. Use helm tocontrol direction

Use small amounts of helm to offset any propeller side force or the effectsof winds and seas. Always note compass course and correct frequently tostay on course. Develop a practiced eye and steer on a geographic pointor range. Try to steer for a point between buoys. Apply small, early helmcorrections to stay on course, rather than large corrections after becomingwell off course. Don’t oversteer, leaving a snake-like path. At lowspeeds, helm correction will be more frequent than at higher speeds.

B.8. Get on plane For planing or semi-displacement hulls, the boat will gradually gain speeduntil planing. If fitted with trim control (including trim tabs on inboardboats), slight, bow-down trim may lessen the amount of time needed toget on plane or “on step.”

B.9. Determineappropriate speed

Don’t ram the throttle to the stop and leave it there.

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B.9.a. Leave amargin of power

Always leave a margin of power available for emergencies. Determine thebest speed for your vessel. Many vessels will not exceed or will onlymarginally exceed a given speed, regardless of the power applied. Atsome point, the only effect of applying additional throttle is increased fuelconsumption with no speed increase. A good normal operating limit forsemi-displacement vessels is usually 90 percent maximum power, allowingthe remaining 10 percent for emergency use or to get out of a tight spot.

B.9.b. Maintainsafe speed forability or conditions

NOTE $$

A boat at high speed has a large amount of force. With an untrainedoperator, this force can be dangerous. Consider different factors todetermine safe speed.

• High seas. Slow down as winds and seas increase; the boat willhandle more easily. Pounding or becoming airborne fatigues thehull and could injure the crew or cause them chronic skeletalproblems. If it takes tremendous effort just to hang on, the crewwill be spent and not able to perform their jobs. Minimize takingspray and water on deck.

WARNING II • Traffic density. Don’t use high speed in high traffic densityareas. A safe speed allows you to respond to developingsituations and minimize risk of collision, not only with the nearestapproaching vessel, but with others around it.

• Visibility. If you can’t see where you’re going, slow down.Fog, rain, and snow are obvious limits to visibility, but there areothers. Geographic features and obstructions (river bends, piers,bridges and causeways), along with heavy vessel traffic, can limitthe view of “the big picture.” Darkness or steering directly into thesun lessens ability to see objects or judge distances. Prevent sprayon the windscreen (particularly salt spray or freezing spray) asmuch as possible and clean it regularly. Spray build-upon thewindscreen is particularly hazardous in darkness or in glare.

• Shoal waters. In extremely shallow water, the bottom has aneffect on the movement of the vessel. Slow down in shallowwaters. In extremely shallow water, the vessel’s stern tends to“squat” and actually moves closer to the bottom.

Find the mostcomfortable, securelocation for theentire crew. Formany vessels, thismeans in theimmediate vicinityof the helm.

Being “on plane” willnot let you to cross ashoal that wouldground your vessel inthe displacementmode. At highplaning speed, thestern will squat as itgets in shallow water,possibly grounding ata very damagingspeed.

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B.10. Bankcushion and banksuction

In extremely narrow channels, a vessel moving through the water willcause the “wedge” of water between the bow and the nearer bank to buildup higher than on the other side. This bow cushion or bank cushion tendsto push the bow away from the edge of the channel.

As the stern moves along, screw suction and water needed to “fill-in”where the boat was creating stern or bank suction. This causes the sternto move towards the bank. The combined effect of momentary bankcushion and bank suction may cause a sudden shear toward the oppositebank. Bank cushion and bank suction are strongest when the bank of achannel is steep. They are weakest when the edge of the channel shoalsgradually and extends in a large shallow area. When possible, stay exactlyin the center of an extremely narrow channel to avoid these forces (Figure10-14). Slower speed also reduces the amount of cushion and suction.Offset for continuous cushion and suction effects by some rudder offsettowards the closer bank.

If a strong, sudden shear occurs, counteract it with full rudder towardsthe bank and increasing speed. Remember, on a single-screw vessel,propeller side force will cause the stern to move to starboard.

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Bow Cushion and Stern SuctionFigure 10-14

CAUTION ! Don’t overcompensate for bank cushion and bank suction. Too much helm in thedirection of the bank could cause the bow to veer into the bank. Then, a subsequentlarge helm movement to turn the bow away from the bank may cause the stern toswing into the bank.

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B.11. Bowcushion and sternsuction

NOTE $$

When meeting another vessel close aboard, bow cushion and stern suctionoccur between the vessels much the same as bank cushion and suction.Use helm corrections to compensate. As both vessels move through thewater, the combined effect is greater than what a single vessel encountersfrom bank interaction. Use caution so the bow does not veer too far fromthe intended track and the stern swings into the path of the other vessel.

Assume a port-to-port meeting situation. Before vessels are bow-to-bow,use a small amount of right rudder to ensure the bows clear. The bowcushion will increase separation. As the vessels near bow-to-beam, useleft rudder to keep away from the right-hand bank and to stay parallel tothe channel. When the vessels are bow-to-quarter, the bow cushion willbe offset by the stern suction, and bank cushion may need to be offset bysome right rudder. Finally, as the vessels are quarter-to-quarter, sternsuction will predominate, and will require left rudder to keep the sternsapart.

The following bow cushion and stern suction considerations apply when meetinganother vessel in a narrow channel and when operating near a bank.

• The deeper the vessel’s draft, the greater the cushion and suction effect,particularly if draft approaches water depth.

• The closer to a bank or another vessel, the greater the cushion and suction.

• In very narrow waterways, slow down to decrease cushion and suction effects,but not to the point that you lose adequate steerage.

When you meet another vessel in a narrow channel, balance the bow cushion andstern suction effects caused by the other vessel with the bank cushion and suctioneffects due to the channel.

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B.12. Watch yourwake

CAUTION !

As a vessel proceeds, a combination of bow and stern waves moveoutward at an angle to the vessel track. The wake height and speeddepend on vessel speed and hull type. Some of the largest wakes arecaused by relatively large, semi-displacement hulls, proceeding at cruisingspeed. Some lighter craft actually make less wake at top speed in theplaning mode rather than at a slower speed. Displacement craft make thelargest wake at hull speed. Determine how to make your vessel leave theleast wake; it might require slowing appreciably.

All vessels are responsible for their wake and any injury or damage itmight cause. Only an unaware coxswain trails a large wake through amooring area or shallows, tossing vessels and straining moorings. “Get-home-itis” and a false sense of urgency are two reasons coxswains forgetto watch their wake. A large, unnecessary wake, particularly in enclosedwaters or near other, smaller vessels, ruins the credibility of a professionalimage.

Whenever youmaneuver, keep thecrew informed,especially if rapidlyaccelerating,turning or slowing.A quick warningshout could prevent

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Turning the Boat with the Helm

B.13. General To move in a straight line, small, frequent, momentary helm inputs adjustthe position of the stern and bow to head in the desired direction. Tointentionally change the vessel heading, use larger, more sustained helmmovement.

B.14. Be aware ofthe pivot point

As noted earlier, you change the direction of the bow by moving the sternin the opposite direction. As the stern swings a certain angle, the bowswings the same angle. Depending on the fore and aft position of thepivot point, the stern could swing through a larger distance than the bow,at the same angle. When a hull moves forward through the water, theeffective pivot point moves forward. The higher the forward speed, thefarther the pivot point moves forward.

B.15. Note howpropulsion typeaffects turning

Because outboards, stern drives and waterjets use propulsion thrust fordirectional control, they can make a much tighter turn (using helm alone)with a given hull shape than if the same hull had shaft, propeller andrudder. With extended outboard mounting brackets, the directed, lower-unit thrust is farthest aft of the pivot point compared to the otherconfigurations. Some brackets move the thrust three to four feet aft ofthe hull. The location aft of pivot point, along with the amount ofdirected thrust determines how much the stern will kick away from thedirection of the turn. With directed thrust, the stern will usually skidoutward more than with shaft, propeller and rudder, making the bowdescribe a very tight arc (Figure 10-15).

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Pivot Point, Skid, Kick, Inboard vs. OutboardFigure 10-15

B.16. Learn thevessel’s turningcharacteristics

If you proceed on a steady heading and then put the helm over to one sideor the other, the boat begins to turn. Up to the time the boat turnsthrough 90 degrees, the boat has continued to advance in the originaldirection. By the time the boat has turned through 90 degrees, it is welloff to the side of the original track. This distance is transfer. As the boatcontinues through 180 degrees, its path has defined its tactical diameter.For a particular vessel, these values vary for speed and rudder angle(Figure 10-16).

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Turning CharacteristicsFigure 10-16

Develop a working knowledge of your vessel’s turning characteristics.This will allow you to decide whether to make particular maneuver in acertain space solely with the helm or whether other maneuvering isneeded. Learn when to ease the helm so as not to oversteer a coursechange.

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B.17. Note loss ofspeed through thewater

WARNING II

Some planing hulls and most semi-displacement craft will slowappreciably when turning at high speeds. As the boat heels into a turn, thehull provides less buoyancy to keep the vessel on plane at a given speed.Also, as the aft part of the hull skids across the water while in a heel, itpresents a flat shape in the original direction of movement and pusheswater outward. The bottom becomes a braking surface. For light-displacement vessels, a full helm at high speed maneuver minimizesadvance.

B.18. Makecourse changesand turns inchannels

Bank suction, bank cushion (see B.10. above) and currents will all affect aboat navigating a sharp bend in a narrow channel. Where naturalwaterways have bends or turns, the water is always deepest and thecurrent is always strongest on the outside of the bend. This is true for 15-degree jogs in a tidal estuary and for the “s” shaped meanders on theMississippi River. This happens because the water flow has a great degreeof momentum and resists having its direction changed. As it strikes theoutside of the bank, it erodes the earth and carries the particles with it.The particles fall out farther downstream in areas of less current (theinside of a turn or bend) and cause shoaling. In some turns or bends, theremay be circular currents or eddies in either the deep outside or the bendor the shallow inside. Back currents also sometime occur near the eddieson the inside of the bend. When eddies or back currents occur, those nearthe shallows are much weaker than eddies or the main current flow at theoutside of the bend back-currents.

Because bank cushion and suction are strongest when the bank of achannel is steep and weakest when the edge of the channel shoalsgradually, bank effect is stronger on the outside of bends or turns. Beaware of the mix of current and bank effect and use these forces to youradvantage.

With light-displacement, high-powered craft, maximum helm at high speed willquickly stop a boat’s progress in the original direction of movement. Though such aturning action is effective to avoid contact with an immediate hazard, the violentmotion could eject unsuspecting crewmembers. Don’t use this technique except asan emergency maneuver and especially don’t use this maneuver to demonstrate theboat’s capability to non-crew.

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B.18.a. Counter ahead currentthrough a bend

Minimize the effect of a head current by steering along the inside quarterof the channel. Make sure you avoid shoaling. If the bow gets into thearea of greater current, it may begin to sheer towards the outside of thebend. Counter it through helm towards the inside of the bend and bygetting the stern directly down-current from the bow. Gradually workback to the inside quarter of the channel.

• If you start from the outside of the bend, you will encounter thefull force of the current. Bank cushion should keep the bow fromthe outside edge, but the stern is limited in its movement by banksuction. Initial helm towards the inside of the turn may allow thecurrent to cause the bow to rapidly sheer away from the outside,but immediately offset this with power and helm to keep the bowpointed upstream. Use gradual helm with constant power to getout of the main force of the current and work across to the insidequarter of the channel.

B.18.b. Navigatewith a followingcurrent

Approach the turn on a course just to the outside of the middle of thechannel. This will avoid the strongest currents at the outside edge whilestill getting a reasonable push. As you turn, the strongest current willaccentuate the swing of the stern quarter to the outside of the channel.Because of this, and because the following current tends to carry the boattoward the outside, begin the turn early in the bend.

• If you stay too far to the outside of the bend, timing the turn isdifficult. Too early, and stern suction on one quarter with thestrongest current on the other quarter may cause an extreme veerto the inside of the turn Any bow cushion will accentuate thesheer. Too late, stern suction and the quartering current couldcause grounding.

• If you try to hug the inside of the turn, both current and bankeffect will be lessened. Use a small amount of rudder toward theinside bank to enter the turn. As the channel begins to bend, useless rudder while the boat starts to move from the inside bank. Usecaution as the current under the quarter affects the stern, giving inan increase in sheer towards the inside bank. Slack water or aneddy down current on the inside will increase this sheer while bowcushion may not be enough to prevent grounding.

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Stopping the Boat

B.19. General If you pull back the throttle to neutral, the vessel will begin to loseforward motion. For a heavy-displacement vessel, once propulsion isstopped, the vessel will continue to move forward for some distance. Thevessel carries its momentum without propulsion. For a semi-displacementhull or planing hull, as you retard throttle and reduce power, the boatquickly comes off plane. As the vessel reverts to displacement mode, theresistance of the hull going through the water instead of on top the waterslows the boat. The vessel still carries some way, but at only a fraction ofthe original speed. Experiment with your vessel and see how rapidly theboat slows after going from cruising speed to neutral throttle. Know theamount of head reach your vessel carries from different speeds. It is veryimportant when maneuvering.

B.20. Use asternproplulsion to stopthe vessel

WARNING II

Slowing the vessel’s forward movement won’t always do; a complete andquick stop to dead in the water may be required. Do this by applyingastern propulsion while still making forward way. First, slow the vessel asbest possible by retarding throttle. After the vessel begins to lose way,apply astern propulsion firmly and forcefully. Power must be higher thanthat available at clutch speed to prevent engine stall. On a single-screwvessel, the stern will want to swing to port. After all way is off, throttle toneutral.

At low forward speeds, astern propulsion is frequently used to maneuver,both to check forward way and to gain sternway.

With a waterjet, reverse thrust is immediate. No marine gear or drive unitchanges shaft and propeller rotation. The clamshell or bucket shapeddeflector plate drops down and redirects thrust forward. As with otherdrives, use enough astern engine power to overcome potential enginestall.

Though many vessels are tested and capable of immediately going fromfull speed ahead to full reverse throttle, this crash stop technique isextremely harsh on the drive train and may cause engine stall. Thoughmuch of the power goes to propeller cavitation, this technique can beeffective in an emergency.

The crash stop is anemergencymaneuver. It maydamage the drivetrain and stall theengine(s). In mostcases, with highlevels of crewprofessionalism,skill and situationalawareness, it is notnecessary.

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B.21. Use fullhelm to stopforward way

NOTE $$

WARNING II

As noted above, with light-displacement, high-powered craft, maximumhelm at high speed will quickly stop a boat’s progress in the originaldirection of movement. To fully stop, throttle down to neutral afterentering the skid. If done properly, no astern propulsion is required.

With a jet drive, no directional control will be available without thrust. The boatmust be in a the skid before reducing power. If thrust is reduced before trying toturn, the boat will slow on the original heading.

As with the crash stop, a full-helm, high-speed stop is an emergency maneuver.The violent motion could eject crewmembers. Don’t use this maneuver in choppywaters as a chine could “trip” and cause the vessel to snap-roll and flip or capsize.

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Backing the Vessel

B.22. General

CAUTION !

CAUTION !

Control while making sternway is essential. Because vessels are designedto go forward, many vessels don’t easily back in a straight line. Due tohigher freeboard and superstructure forward (increased sail area), manyvessels back into the wind. Knowledge of how environmental forces affectyour boat is critical when backing.

Besides watching where the stern goes, keep track of the bow. The sternwill move one direction and the bow the other around the pivot point. Asa vessel develops sternway, the apparent pivot point moves aft and thebow may swing through a greater distance. Keep firm control of the helmto prevent the rudder or drive from swinging to a hard-over angle.

B.23. Screw andrudder

While backing, the rudders are in the weaker, less concentrated screwsuction current, and most steering control comes from flow across therudder due to sternway.

Don’t back in a way that allows water to ship over the transom. Be careful withboats of very low freeboard aft. Outboard powered vessels, with low cut-out formotor mounting and a large portion of weight aft are susceptible to shipping waterwhile backing, particularly in a chop. If shipped water does not immediately drain,it jeopardizes stability.

Most inboard engines exhaust through the transom. Outboard motors exhaustastern. Backing could subject the crew and cabin spaces to a large amount ofexhaust fumes. Limit exposure to exhaust fumes as best possible. If training,frequently change vessel aspect to the wind to clear fumes. After backing, ventilateinterior spaces.

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B.23.a. Single-engine vessels

Propeller side force presents a major obstacle to backing in the directionyou want. The rudder does not have much effect until sternway occurs,and even then, many boats will back into the wind despite your besteffort. If backing to the wind, know at what wind speed the boat will backinto the wind without backing to port.

• Before starting to back, apply right full rudder to get anyadvantage available.

• A quick burst of power astern will cause the stern to swing toport, but use it to get the boat moving.

• Once moving, reduce power somewhat to reduce propeller sideforce and steer with the rudder. As sternway increases, less rudderwill be needed to maintain a straight track astern.

• If more sternway is needed to improve steerage, increase powergradually; a strong burst astern will quickly swing the stern toport.

• If stern swing to port cannot be controlled by the rudder alone,use a burst of power ahead for propeller side force to swing thestern to starboard. Don’t apply so much power as to stopsternway or to set up a screw discharge current that would causethe stern to swing farther to port. (As the vessel backs, it usessternway water flow across the rudder to steer).

• If this fails, use a larger burst of power ahead, with helm to port.Sternway will probably stop, but propeller side force and dischargecurrent across the shifted rudder will move the stern to starboard.Now try backing, again.

B.23.b. Twin-engine vessels

Back both engines evenly to offset propeller side force. Use asymmetricpower (one engine at higher RPM than the other) to help steer the stern.Asymmetric power will also give unequal propeller side force that willhelp steer.

• Apply astern power evenly, keeping rudders amidships.

• If the stern tends to one side, first try to control direction withslight helm adjustment. If not effective, either increase backingpower on the side toward the direction of veer or decrease poweron the opposite side.

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B.24. Stern drivesand outboards

Use the directed thrust to pull the stern to one side or the other. As thepower is applied aft of the transom, use care to keep the bow from fallingoff course due to winds. Avoid cavitation that can easily occur whenbacking with a lower unit. Propeller side force is present, but is offsetthrough helm. A lower unit that is not providing thrust is not efficientwhen trying to steer while backing. It is better to keep steady, slow RPMsthan to vary between high power and neutral.

B.24.a. Single-outboard/ outdrive

• Offset propeller side force with right rudder.

• Apply astern power gradually, but be careful not to cause propellercavitation.

B.24.b. Twin-outboard/ outdrive

If astern power is matched, propeller side forces will cancel. As with twininboards, first try to offset any stern swing with helm before usingasymmetric power.

If less thrust than that provided by both drives at clutch speed is needed,use one motor or engine. This will keep speed low but will keep thrustavailable for steering, rather than shifting one or both engines fromreverse to neutral. If using one unit, compensate with helm for propellerside force and the increased, off-centered drag caused by the other lowerunit.

B.25. Waterjets There is no propeller side force and thrust is directed. Going fromforward to reverse thrust has no marine gear or drive train to slow things.Thrust is simply redirected with the “bucket.” Unless thrust is applied andbeing directed, there is no directional control at all.

Avoid bursts of power astern when backing. Bursts of power whenmaking astern thrust will excessively aerate the waterjet intake flow aheadof the transom.

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Using Asymmetric or Opposed Propulsion (Twin ScrewTheory)

B.26. General

NOTE $$

Asymmetric propulsion while backing was covered above. The techniquespresented here are additional methods of maneuvering that capitalize ontwin-engine vessel capability to differ the amount or direction of thrustproduced by the two engines. Any difference in thrust affects the boat’sheading. The amount of this difference can vary from that needed to holda course at cruising speed to turning a boat 360 degrees in its own lengthby opposing propulsion (splitting throttles). Liken the concept ofasymmetric or opposed propulsion to “twisting” the boat, but the forcesand fundamentals discussed earlier still apply and affect vessel response.Pivot point, propeller side force and turning characteristics remainimportant. Because the drives are offset from vessel centerline on a twin-engine vessel, they apply a turning moment to the hull. Twin outboardmotors on a bracket apply this twist aft of the hull (and well aft of the hullpivot point), while twin inboards apply most of this twist to the hull at thefirst thrust-bearing member of the drive train (usually the reduction gearor v-drive, much closer to the pivot point). With inboards, propeller sideforce is transferred through strut and stern tube to the hull.

Up to a point, the greater the difference in RPMs, the greater the effect onthe change in heading. Above that point, specific for each boat, type ofpropulsion, sea conditions and operating speed, cavitation or aeration willoccur, and propulsion efficiency will decrease, at least on one drive.

B.27. Hold acourse

Depending on a vessel’s topside profile, wind conditions might make thebow continually fall off to leeward. Though the helmsman can compensatefor this by steering with constant pressure to hold desired course, a lesstaxing way is to adjust the throttles so the leeward engine turns at moreRPMs than the windward engine. Fine-tune the difference in RPMs untilpressure is off the helm.

As with all boathandlingtechniques, learnthese first in calmweather, in openwater and at lowspeeds.

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Changing Vessel heading Using Asymmetric or OpposedPropulsion (Twin Screw Theory)

B.28. General These techniques cause a faster change in heading by increasing both skidand kick, reducing advance and transfer, and if the heading change is heldlong enough, the overall tactical diameter.

B.29. Rotateabout the pivotpoint

This is a low-speed maneuver. It is important because you will facesituations when you need to change the boat’s heading (to the weather oranother vessel) or to move the bow or stern in a limited area. Oppose theengines to turn in an extremely tight space. Perform this maneuver first atclutch speed in calm conditions to learn how the vessel reacts and whattype of arcs the bow and stern describe. With no way on, there is no initialadvance and transfer, so depending on the boat, this maneuver might yielda tactical diameter of zero if you change heading 360 degrees (rotating thevessel in its own length).

Consider the forces involved. Vessels with propellers will develop sideforce from both drives during this maneuver. The rudder (whereequipped) can use screw discharge current from the ahead engine to helppivot the stern. Because boats operate more efficiently ahead, someheadway may develop.

B.29.a. Helm overhard to port

Put the helm over hard to port:

• Perform the same procedures as with helm amidships. Whenstopping and reversing direction of swing, shift the helm tostarboard.

• In addition to the observations made with helm amidships, notewhether the sizes of the arcs were smaller (due to directed thrustby lower unit or rudder).

B.29.b. Helmamidships

With helm amidships:

Step Procedure1 At dead in the water and throttles in neutral, simultaneously clutch

ahead with starboard engine, and clutch astern with port engine(keep both engine RPMs the same, though in opposite direction).

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Step Procedure2 Note the arcs described by bow and stern as the vessel swings

through 360 degrees to determine vessel pivot point.3 If vessel moved forward (along its centerline) during the rotation,

slightly increase astern RPM to compensate.4 Now, simultaneously shift throttles so port is clutch ahead and

starboard is clutch astern; note how long it takes to stop andreverse direction of swing.

5 Again, check bow and stern arcs as vessel swings through 360degrees, then stop the swing.

B.29.c. Developingskills

CAUTION !

NOTE $$

With the basic skill in hand, practice controlling the amount of swing. Usethe compass and gradually limit the degree of rotation down to 30 degreeseach side of the original heading. Next, increase amount of throttleapplied. Note the effect on vessel movement especially as to the rate ofswing.

Develop your boat handling knowledge and skills to know the degree ofthrottle splitting or asymmetric thrust for best effect in any situation.Maneuvering near the face of a breaking wave may require opposingengines at one-third or more their available RPM, while maneuvering nearthe pier might only require a short, small burst on one engine to bring thebow through the wind.

All crew membersmust pay closeattention tothrottle changesand vesselmovements.Firmly hold on tothe vessel duringthese maneuvers.

Experiment with your vessel.• Though rudder use should help increase the rate of swing, the increase in

turn rate might not be worth the workload increase (stop-to-stop helm use).Due to rudder swing rate, full helm use may not be as effective as leavingthe helm centered.

• At some level of power for each vessel and drive train arrangement,cavitation will occur with split throttles. Know at what throttle settingscavitation occurs. More power will not increase turning ability and mightcause temporary loss of maneuverability until cavitation subsides. Incritical situations, loss of effective power could leave a vessel vulnerable.

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B.30. Reducetactical diameterat speed

An emergency maneuver at cruising speed may require a turn withreduced tactical diameter.

B.30.a. Turn anddrag one propeller

An effective technique for a twin-propeller boat is to have one propelleract as a brake. This creates drag on the side with that propeller andreduces the turning diameter.

Step Procedure1 Put helm hard over.2 Bring throttle on the engine in the direction of the turn to

“clutch-ahead.”

NOTE $$

B.30.b. Turn andsplit throttles

This practice also is more effective with shaft, propeller and rudderarrangement than with directed thrust drives. One propeller will still beproviding forward thrust while the other will be backing. As withopposing thrust in low speed maneuvering, propeller side force ismultiplied. Cavitation will be pronounced on the backing screw, but thevessel’s forward motion keeps advancing this screw into relativelyundisturbed (or not-aerated) water.

Step Procedure1 Put helm hard over.2 Bring throttle on the engine in the direction of the turn firmly to

and through neutral, then past, the clutch-astern position, andgradually increase astern RPM.

WARNING II

Don’t put throttle to neutral position. In neutral, the propeller will “free-wheel”and rotate without any resistance. By staying at clutch ahead, the marine gear andengine will keep the propeller from spinning at a rate that corresponds to thevessel’s speed through the water, “braking” the vessel.

As with the crash stop, this maneuver is extremely hard on the engine and drivetrain. The backing engine’s power must be higher than that available at clutchspeed to prevent engine stall.

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NOTE $$ Fully develop your boat handling skills and key them to the particular craft youoperate. For instance, the Destroyer Turn described above (turn and splitthrottles) was developed for twin-screw ships operating in the open ocean.Though it has been carried into boat operations as a standard procedure for man-overboard recovery, a highly maneuverable, planing-hulled boat might be muchmore effective in recovery by doing a crash stop then pivoting, while stayingwithin immediate range (and sight) of the person in the water.

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Performing Single-Screw Compound Maneuvering (SingleScrew Theory)

B.31. General Apply basic maneuvering techniques in combination with a singlepropeller, at low speed to further boat handling skills. Learn thesemaneuvers as best possible in calm, no-current situations before learningto overcome environmental forces.

A single-screw vessel never has the ability to use asymmetric or opposedpropulsion, and its coxswain must develop boat handling skills with this inmind. The operator of a twin-engine vessel could easily become limited touse of one drive due to engine failure or fouling a screw, and must alsobecome a proficient, single-screw boat handler.

For the discussion here, we will use the case of a single-engine propellervessel with right-hand turning screw. When maneuvering a twin-enginevessel on one drive, the coxswain must account for the propeller rotationand side force for the particular drive used (normally starboard: right-hand turning, port: left-hand turning), and the offset of the drive fromcenterline.

B.32. Back andfill

The back and fill technique, also known as casting, provides a method toturn a vessel in little more than its own length. At some point, anyonewho operates a single-screw vessel will need to rely on these conceptswhen they operate a boat, particularly in close-quarters maneuvering. Toback and fill, rely on the tendency of a vessel to back to port, and then usethe rudder to direct thrust when powering ahead. Decide the radius of thecircle where you want to stay (at most, 25 to 35 percent larger than thevessel’s overall length), and the intended change in direction (usually nomore than 180 degrees) before starting. For initial training, turn throughat least 360 degrees.

From dead-in-the-water:

Step Procedure1 Put helm at right full and momentarily throttle ahead, being

careful not to make much headway. (Rudder directs screwdischarge current thrust to starboard, more than offsettingpropeller side force and moves stern to port).

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Step Procedure2 Before gaining much headway quickly throttle astern and shift

helm to left full. (With throttle astern, side force much strongerthan screw suction, rudder to port takes advantage of anysternway).

3 Once sternway begins, simultaneously shift helm to full right andthrottle ahead as in step 1.

4 Repeat steps until vessel has come to desired heading, then puthelm amidships and apply appropriate propulsion.

NOTE $$ • A firm grasp of your vessel’s maneuvering characteristics is necessary toknow whether you will need to back and fill rather than just maneuver at fullrudder.

• The amount of steps used will depend on size of your turning area and thedesired change in heading. The smaller the area, the more backing and fillingrequired.

• Winds will play a factor in casting. If your vessel bow is easily blown offcourse, your vessel probably has a tendency to back into the wind. Set up yourmaneuver (including direction of turn) to take advantage of this in getting thebow to change direction. Strong winds will offset both propeller side force andany rudder effect.

• A quick helm hand is a prerequisite for casting with an outboard or sterndrive. To get full advantage of the lower unit’s directed thrust, fully shift thehelm before applying propulsion. With helm at left full, the propeller sideforce when backing will have an element that tries to move the stern“forward” around the pivot point.

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Section C. Maneuvering Near Other Objects

Overview

Introduction This section applies basic maneuvering principles to control your vesselwith respect to other objects. Later parts will cover mooring, unmooring,and coming alongside other vessels or objects. This covers maneuveringyour vessel near, but not next to, another object.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageKeeping Station 10-52Maneuvering 10-56

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Keeping Station

C.1. General

NOTE $$

Learn to manage the effects of environmental forces by keeping station onan object. Keeping station maintains your distance, position and aspect toor from an object. With twin propulsion, develop skills to keep station atany aspect to any object in most conditions. Though many single-driveboats are thought to be less maneuverable, fully develop single-drivestation-keeping skills. Practice station-keeping in various levels of wind,seas and current.

This section includes considerations for a maneuvering zone, maneuveringon different types of objects and different maneuvers to keep station.

C.2. Determine amaneuvering zone

Each situation requires a safe maneuvering zone to reach an optimalposition near the object so an evolution can safely occur and be doneeffectively, i.e., equipment transfer, object recovery, surveillance, etc.

Before you keep station, get the “big picture.”

CAUTION ! Step Procedure1 Evaluate environmental conditions and how they affect the

situation.2 Determine if obstructions on the object or in and above the water

limit your safe maneuvering zone.3 Account for them and keep the environmental forces in mind4 Avoid vessel outriggers or hull protrusions, loose pier camels or

broken pilings, ice guards, shoals, rocks or other submergedobstructions, low overhead cables or bridge spans.

5 Define the maneuvering zone by distance, position and aspect. Putlimits on each element and maneuver to stay within those limits.

All coxswains oftwin-drive vesselsmust frequentlytrain for single driveoperation. Thisincludes station-keeping.

When station-keeping, alwayshave a safe escaperoute to get clear ofthe object or anyhazard. As you keepstation, ensure theescape route staysclear. This mayrequire changingposition to establisha new escape route.

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C.2.a. Distance Keep station close enough to complete a mission or evolution, yet farenough to prevent collision or allision. Minimum distance to the objectwill probably vary around the object or along its length. Environmentalconditions and boat maneuverability play a major role in determiningdistance.

1. Use a practiced eye and ranging techniques to keep distance.

2. When able, use identifiable keys, such as a boat length. Unlesswell practiced, each crewmember will probably differ in howthey view 25 feet or 25 yards.

3. Use knowledge of your own vessel. If it has a twelve-footbeam at the transom, transpose that measurement to the gapbetween your boat and an object.

4. If the coxswain station does not allow a clear view of theobject, use points on your vessel (windscreen brackets,antennae, or fittings) to set up range-keeping clues.

5. Position: the angle from the object to your vessel (or thereciprocal). To keep station on another vessel, particularly onethat is disabled and adrift, use the angle your vessel is from theother vessel’s centerline; on a moored or fixed object, use ageographic or compass bearing.

6. Aspect: the relative angle your vessel makes to the otherobject (bow, beam, quarter, etc.). You may need to keep theobject at a certain aspect to pass equipment or a towline, tomaintain surveillance or to train a fire hose.

C.3. Differencesin objects

Differences in objects determine the maneuvering situation. Become fullycapable of station keeping in a variety of situations both type of objectand environmental conditions.

C.3.a. Keep stationon a free-driftingobject

Object type and size ranges from small items to other vessels. Free-drifting objects will present a different drift rate from your vessel.Develop station-keeping techniques by first matching your drift rate to theobject, then overcoming the difference.

Have another vessel maintain a steady course at low speed. Pace yourvessel to the other vessel and then maneuver around it. Pacing yourmovement to the other vessel is critical before safely going alongside.

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No Leeway Practice with a floating (but ballasted) item that does notdrift with the wind. A weighted mannequin with PFD orweighted duffel bag with a float in one end will work.The object’s drift will be limited to the surface current,while your vessel will respond to currents and winds. Thistype of object simulates a person-in-the-water.

Leeway Wind-drift is the main consideration here. Practice withpaired fenders, a partially filled 6-gallon bucket or a smallskiff. Though wind will have a measurable effect onobject drift, current will play little role. As above, yourvessel will be subject to both wind and current.

Other Vessel Become proficient at station-keeping on a variety ofvessel types including one like your own. Differentvessels react differently to environmental forces. Learnhow other vessels drift compared to your own. See howother vessels lie to the wind, then maneuver your vesselto an optimal position for observation, coming alongsideor passing a tow rig.

C.3.b. Keep stationon an anchoredobject

This limits much of the object’s movement due to wind and current, butthe object will often surge and swing. Your vessel will react freely to thewind and current. The object will ride with its moored end into thestrongest environmental force affecting it, while the combination of forceson your vessel may cause it to take a different aspect.

Station keeping on an anchored object helps you learn where you can orcannot maneuver. Upstream of a buoy, strong current could easily carryyou down on it. On the other hand, the only safe approach to a disabledvessel, anchored off a lee shore, may be from dead-to-weather.

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Buoy or Float In general, approach a moored buoy or float from down-current or downwind, bow to the object. If servicing afloating aid to navigation, the approach may requirecentering your stern on the buoy. To train, keep station atvarious distances and angles to an object. Pick somethingtotally surrounded by safe water. Next, maneuver up-current or upwind.

A Vessel Surveillance, personnel or equipment transfer, or firefighting may require station-keeping on an anchoredvessel. Develop skills to keep station at all distances andangles. Different sizes and types of vessels will ride theiranchors differently. Deep draft or a large underbody willmake a vessel ride with the current, while high freeboardand superstructure may make the vessel tend downwind.Evaluate the combination of forces as you keep station.

Note vessel interaction. If you are close aboard andupwind, a small, light vessel may ride the anchordifferently than if you weren’t there. A larger vessel mayaffect the forces on you by making a lee. Watch a vessel’smotions while it “rides” anchor. Some vessels don’t“steady out,” but veer back and forth. Observe and planaccordingly.

Fixed Object Keep station on a pier, seawall, or breakwater. View thisas a step before mooring. Also, you may need these skillsto transfer someone to a fixed aid to navigation or toremove a person stranded on rocks. Station keeping onfixed objects makes you deal with forces that affect youand not the object. Often, the fixed object affects theenvironmental forces by funneling, blocking, or changingdirection of the current or wind.

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Maneuvering

C.4. General Station-keeping will usually require frequent to near-continuousapplications of power and helm to stay in the safe maneuvering zone. Asyou keep station and try to stay within the maneuvering zone limits, youwill find that adjusting for one of the parameters (distance, position,aspect), will almost always involve a change to one or both of the othertwo. While using power and helm to compensate for and to overcomewind and current, use the wind and current to your best advantage.

C.5. Stem theforces

To stem the forces means to keep the current or wind directly on the bowor stern and hold position by setting boat speed to equally oppose thespeed of drift.

C.6. Crab theboat sideways

To do this, use the environmental forces to move the boat at a right angleto the forces. Put the bow at a shallow angle (20 to 30 degrees) to theprevailing force and use ahead propulsion and helm to keep from gettingset backward, while staying at the shallow angle to the prevailingenvironmental force.

C.7. Open andclose

Make your vessel “open” and “close” the distance on the object at variousangles, both to leeward and to weather. With an object on the bow orstern, directly up-drift or down-drift from you, opening and closingrequires only to compensate for the fore and aft drift rate and to maintaina steady heading. The more difficult scenario is opening or closingdistance abeam.

Step Procedure1 Use a combination of control and environmental forces: side

force, ahead and astern thrust, rudder force, leeway, current drift.2 Remember to account for pivot point when moving the bow or

the stern.3 Use reasonable limits and stay within them.

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Section D. Maneuvering to or from a Dock

Overview

Introduction The most challenging and probably most frequent maneuvering you willencounter is that associated with getting in and out of slips, dock areas,piers, boat basins or marinas.

In this section This section contains the following information:

Topic See PageGeneral Considerations 10-58Basic Maneuvers 10-59Rules of Thumb 10-63

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General Considerations

D.1. General When maneuvering to or from a dock, keep the following points in mind.Brief the crew on procedures to be used.

D.2. Compensatefor wind orcurrent

Check the conditions before maneuvering. Always try to take advantageof wind and current when docking or mooring. To maintain best control,approach against the wind and current and moor on the leeward side of amooring when possible. Chances are that when you get underway,conditions aren’t the same as when you moored.

D.3. Rig and leadmooring lines andfenders early

Rig and lead mooring lines and fenders well before the approach. Get thenoise and confusion over with long before the coxswain must concentrateand maneuver to the dock.

Though common practice is to leave mooring lines attached to the homepier, always have a spare mooring line and moveable fender on the boatand at the ready while approaching any dock, including the home pier.

D.4. Control, notspeed

Emphasize control, not speed, when docking. Keep just enough headwayor sternway to cou